The event and implementation of a sturdy information administration infrastructure might be important for assigning and managing investigations, linking purchasers with confirmed and possible COVID-19 to their contacts, and evaluating success and alternatives for enchancment in a case investigation and phone tracing program. COVID-19 case investigations will doubtless be triggered by one in all three occasions:
- A constructive SARS-CoV-2 laboratory check or
- A supplier report of a confirmed or possible COVID-19 analysis or
- Identification of a contact as having COVID-19 by contact tracing
Knowledge administration programs ought to be capable of seize these three forms of occasions electronically. Ideally laboratory, supplier, and phone case experiences ought to be transmitted to the native well being authority electronically after which seamlessly imported into the system in an automatic vogue.
Upon receipt of a triggering occasion, the case investigation and phone tracing system ought to assign an auto-generated, distinctive affected person identifier to the affected person report. The distinctive IDs mustn’t embody a element of non-public figuring out data (e.g., date of beginning, affected person initials). The system ought to permit for the task of latest investigations to contact tracing workers with clear modules for the investigation. Module elements that ought to be thought of embody:
- Affected person finding and sociodemographic data (e.g., date of beginning, race/ethnicity, residential deal with) and COVID-19-specific data (e.g., signs, date of symptom onset, date of SARS-CoV-2 testing, check outcomes, hospitalizations, co-morbid circumstances).
- Affected person threat evaluation (e.g., particular individuals the affected person had shut contact with through the contact elicitation window, group places the place the affected person visited and will have uncovered others (e.g., grocery store, office, public transportation). Better specificity within the data collected can significantly enhance the effectiveness of contact tracing, so the system ought to be versatile sufficient to permit for textual content discipline entry however structured sufficient that frequency distributions of places and folks will be shortly obtained.
- Named contacts ought to be captured on a separate module which incorporates all data supplied by the affected person, in addition to further threat evaluation data for the contact (e.g., location and shut contacts they might have had throughout their contact elicitation window). This module ought to permit for the entry of particular individuals (Jane Doe), individuals with partial contact data (Doug from the neighborhood BBQ) and places (bus or prepare routes, neighborhood grocery retailer). This module must also create a novel identifier that may be assigned to every contact utilizing the identical conventions as above, and that can permit for a contact to be linked to the case and to additionally flip right into a affected person if they’re the truth is contaminated with SARS-CoV-2. Extra data to gather from the contacts embody any signs of COVID-19, symptom onset dates, and dates and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 assessments, in addition to whether or not they have been beforehand conscious or knowledgeable of their publicity.
As well as, each case and phone kind ought to have a public well being ID variable for program analysis functions.
Administration of COVID-19 investigations will shortly turn out to be difficult because the variety of case experiences will increase. The info system should be relational in nature and be capable of hyperlink a number of people to many different people within the system. Assigning every particular person within the system a novel ID will assist help this. Nevertheless, separate tables might be wanted to account for the advanced interconnectedness of lots of the investigations.
Ideally, the info system ought to facilitate many-to-many relationship mapping between recognized instances and contacts with a purpose to help information evaluation and source-spread mapping of COVID-19 transmission. The info system ought to be user-friendly, versatile and accessible by cell machine, in addition to a laptop computer or desktop pc. A cloud-based system will permit the best flexibility and guarantee routine information storage, safety and updating, however distinctive jurisdictional legal guidelines and rules might necessitate on-premises information storage.
Moreover, the system ought to be capable of be manipulated by public well being informatics, information administration and epidemiologic workers, with out the necessity for help from the seller or contractors. This may permit for speedy updates of modules as new information assortment wants are recognized, the flexibility to provide each canned and ad-hoc experiences for administration of investigations, and the flexibility to seamlessly combine with different modules to carry out high quality assurance and extra difficult community and epidemiologic analyses. The info system must also be interoperable with present surveillance programs.
Guaranteeing native well being authority IT and informatics help is important. Involving related IT, informatics, fiscal, and management entities early may help overcome delays and price over-runs in implementation and upkeep of the system. Moreover, consideration ought to be made to who has final duty for the upkeep and maintenance of the system early to make sure the proper companions are engaged in system developments. Knowledge safety and confidentiality requirements ought to be thought of and integrated into all plans associated to case investigation and phone tracing actions.
For data on transferring COVID-19 instances and contacts between well being jurisdictions, please see Technical Help Word: Transferring COVID-19 Contact Tracing Information by way of Epi-X.