The person who cries voter fraud: how Hans von Spakovsky has constructed a profession peddling election safety fears

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The person who cries voter fraud: how Hans von Spakovsky has constructed a profession peddling election safety fears

21 Illustration: Eddie Man/The Guardian

At a US Home listening to in Could, a bespectacled 65-year-old lawyer made a startling declare: Americans’ proper to vote was underneath assault. Non-citizens, Hans von Spakovsky claimed, had been voting unchecked in federal elections, and one thing wanted to be performed about it.

“We all know that aliens are registering and truly voting,” stated von Spakovsky, “and it’s necessary to know that each vote by an alien voids the vote of a citizen.”

For von Spakovsky, who leads Heritage Basis’s election legislation initiative and authored the part of Mission 2025 on federal election oversight, the testimony joined two of his favourite matters: immigration and what he believes is the unseen scourge of fraudulent voting in American elections.

It was additionally deeply deceptive. The felony penalties for voting in federal elections are steep for immigrants with out full citizenship – felony fees and even deportation. In order that they not often solid ballots in US elections. That has not stopped von Spakovsky from doubling down on his declare that non-citizen voting threatens election safety.

Anxieties about voter fraud entered the conservative mainstream in full power within the mid-2000s, as Republican-controlled state legislatures throughout the nation adopted voter identification legal guidelines ostensibly to forestall particular person acts of fraudulent voting – like a voter casting a poll in two states or underneath another person’s title. The concept elections might be susceptible to widespread fraud shaped the premise of Donald Trump’s lie that the 2020 election had been stolen – charming his base and driving hundreds to insurrectionist violence on 6 January 2021.

Von Spakovsky, who former colleagues describe as mild-mannered and even awkward, didn’t be part of Trump’s authorized efforts to overturn the 2020 election; nor did he be part of the previous president’s loyalists who publicly decried the outcomes of the election as illegitimate.

However von Spakovsky has nonetheless been working tirelessly, typically behind the scenes, to lift unfounded allegations of widespread voter fraud all through the course of his decades-long profession as a conservative activist. “Election integrity” and the concept that US elections are susceptible to mass, fraudulent voting, has grow to be a centerpiece of conservative politics, with von Spakovsky taking part in a key position in bringing the motion to that time.

“He most likely is the only most necessary advocate, over an extended time period, persuading individuals to take this declare of fraud critically,” stated Paul Smith, the senior vice-president of the non-partisan voting rights group Marketing campaign Authorized Middle.

Von Spakovsky didn’t reply to quite a few requests for an interview.


Von Spakovsky bought his first critical publicity to elections administration when he was nominated to the Fulton county, Georgia board of registration and elections by the county Republican get together in 1996, when he was working as an lawyer within the personal sector.

Wini Cox, a Democrat who served on the board with him, described von Spakovsky as hyper-vigilant and intensely cautious of the voting course of.

“Hans was suspicious of every part,” stated Cox.

By 2000, von Spakovsky had made a reputation for himself in a small community of conservative organizations devoted to voter fraud and elections safety. In a prolonged weblog publish on the Federalist Society’s web site in February 2000, he mused about mail-in voting, everlasting absentee voting and the spectre of non-US residents registering to vote. Particularly regarding, wrote von Spakovsky, had been voting reforms that streamlined the voter registration course of – just like the Nationwide Voter Registration Act, which made it simpler for voters to register whereas making use of for a drivers license.

“All of those ‘reforms’ have elevated the chance for election fraud,” he wrote.

Voter Integrity Mission, a Virginia-based group that von Spakovsky suggested, advocated purging voter rolls, even awarding the corporate chargeable for erroneously scrubbing hundreds of disproportionately minority voters from Florida’s rolls earlier than the 2000 election, an honor for “innovation”.

Later, when George W Bush was elected president, von Spakovsky – at that time a distinguished blogger and activist targeted on the subject of voter fraud – was employed to the voting part of the civil rights division of the Division of Justice; in 2002, he was promoted to supervise the part. Introduced in with the brand new presidential administration, von Spakovsky was in all however title a political appointee. However he served alongside profession staffers within the division.

“He was technically in a profession place,” stated Jon Greenbaum, who served as a trial lawyer within the voting part on the time. “However in sensible phrases, he was taking part in a really political position.”

In a very placing incident, von Spakovsky declined to recuse himself from reviewing the legality of a strict voter identification legislation in Georgia, regardless of having lately labored there as a Republican get together activist. Whereas the evaluate was underway, von Spakovsky even printed an article advocating for voter ID legal guidelines underneath the pseudonym “Publius.” Over the objections of profession attorneys, who in a memo argued that “the totality of the proof” instructed the legislation would disproportionately disenfranchise Black voters, “increased rating officers” allowed the legislation to be cleared, in response to the Washington Publish.

In 2005, von Spakovsky was rewarded for his efficiency within the Division of Justice – with an interim appointment, by Bush, to the Federal Elections Fee, the place he labored for 2 years.

However the Senate by no means confirmed his appointment. Six former justice division workers made the unprecedented resolution to pen a letter to the committee on guidelines and administration objecting to his full appointment.

Throughout his tenure within the voting part, they alleged, von Spakovsky had “performed a significant position within the implementation of practices which injected partisan political components into decision-making on enforcement issues and into the hiring course of”.

It will not be the final time that individuals who encountered him professionally would discover themselves so alarmed by his cutthroat partisanship.

Three years after von Spakovsky withdrew from consideration for the FEC appointment, he returned once more to elections administration – as vice-chair of the three-person electoral board in Fairfax county, a blue-leaning Virginia county outdoors DC with a big immigrant inhabitants. César del Aguila, who chaired the county Democratic get together on the time, stated that in his tenure on the board, von Spakovsky objected to the location of non-English language informational supplies about voting in polling locations.

“Why is it okay to take away literature in numerous languages?” stated del Aguila. “To me, it was a really private factor that was occurring there, concentrating on the majority-minority immigrant neighborhood.”

When von Spakovsky was up for re-appointment, del Aguila felt he wanted to do one thing. In a letter to the circuit courtroom overseeing von Spakovsky’s re-appointment, del Aguila wrote on behalf of the county Democratic get together that von Spakovsky was “temperamentally ill-suited” to hold out his obligations on the elections board.

“I had a variety of institutional conservative Democrats give me crap about writing that, and taking that place, as a result of [to them] it was extra necessary to simply not make any waves,” stated del Aguila. “It most likely wouldn’t have been performed had not a Latino been chair.”

The courtroom was receptive, and declined to reappoint von Spakovsky.


For many years, von Spakovsky had been writing about and advocating for the implementation of strict voter identification legal guidelines and dismissing the justified concern such measures would disenfranchise poor and minority voters as “hysterical”. In 2018, he bought an opportunity to show in courtroom his place that election integrity requires strict voter identification legal guidelines.

The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) was suing the Kansas secretary of state Kris Kobach over a legislation requiring voters to offer proof of citizenship earlier than casting a poll. The plaintiffs argued the legislation violated the Nationwide Voter Registration Act; von Spakovsky, a buddy of Kobach’s within the combat for voter ID, would stand as an skilled witness in protection of the strict legislation.

The testimony went terribly.

Throughout his assertion earlier than the courtroom, von Spakovsky pointed to protection from a Florida NBC outlet that had discovered a doable 100 non-citizens on the state’s voter rolls.

Throughout cross-examination, Dale Ho, the lead lawyer for the plaintiffs, identified that the NBC outlet had revised their reporting, discovering that at the least 35 of the 100 voters initially recognized as ineligible had been truly US residents. Von Spakovsky conceded that this was true. Ho additionally pointed to an article that von Spakovsky had written in 2011 claiming a Missouri election had hinged on unlawful votes solid by Somali residents. It hadn’t, Ho revealed: earlier than von Spakovsky’s article ran, a choose had discovered no fraud had taken place throughout the election.

Julie Robinson, the US district choose overseeing the case, finally sided with the ACLU. In her opinion, she issued a devastating indictment of von Spakovsky and his proof. The courtroom, she wrote, gave “little weight” to von Spakovsky’s testimony, which was “premised on a number of deceptive and unsupported examples of noncitizen voter registration, principally outdoors the state of Kansas”. Von Spakovsky had given the impression of an activist masquerading as an skilled.

“He actually bought himself into hassle with the choose,” stated Lorraine Minnite, a political scientist who wrote the ebook The Fantasy of Voter Fraud and served as an skilled witness for the plaintiffs throughout the Kansas case. “That hasn’t chastened him in any respect – he’s been steadfast.”


Regardless of having been discredited in courtroom, von Spakovsky continued to work as a proponent of so-called “election integrity” efforts, led the Election Legislation Reform Initiative on the rightwing Heritage Basis and joined Trump’s short-lived Presidential Advisory fee on Election Integrity in 2017.

On the basis, von Spakovsky wields appreciable affect.

“I’d sit right here and speak to him for seven or eight hours,” stated Kevin Roberts, the president of the Heritage Basis, in a 2022 podcast interview with von Spakovsky. “In actual fact, we do this some months over the interval of a number of conferences.”

On the basis, von Spakovsky fires off a daily stream of written commentary on elections – but additionally on different conservative matters du jour. In a single column, he argues in assist of Texas’s razored buoys within the Rio Grande river. In one other, he decries the NFL as “an anti-American, ‘woke’ establishment” for taking part in Elevate Each Voice and Sing, at soccer video games.

He has additionally continued to work carefully with Republican election officers; in 2020, ProPublica reported that von Spakovsky had held a sequence of closed-door conferences with election officers analyzing the problem of voter fraud. Within the years since, he has continued to work with Republican secretaries of state.

In a six-page article printed within the Heritage Basis’s now-infamous Mission 2025, von Spakovsky presents a glimpse of his imaginative and prescient for a future for US elections regulation – wherein the Federal Election Fee, which is tasked with overseeing marketing campaign finance legal guidelines and US federal elections, is delivered to heel.

At present overseen by a fee of three Democratic and three Republican appointees, the FEC has often deadlocked over main points. One proposal, backed by some Democrats, would scale back the scale of the FEC to 5 appointees with a nonpartisan chair.

The president, von Spakovsky argues, “ought to vigorously oppose” such a reform.

The FEC’s most grievous fault, he provides, just isn’t under-enforcement, as pro-democracy teams argue, however over-enforcement. The doc comprises echoes of von Spakovsky’s years within the justice division – the place he served throughout a time of hyper-partisanship.

In von Spakovsky’s view, the enforcement of US elections legislation must be underneath the purview of 1 individual: the president.

“The President ought to direct the DOJ and the lawyer common to not prosecute people underneath an interpretation of the legislation with which the FEC,” von Spakovsky writes, “doesn’t agree.”

His view aligns carefully with the majority of Mission 2025 – a playbook for a Republican presidency that might radically consolidate the facility of the manager department, prioritizing not solely deregulation, lengthy a pillar of the conservative motion, but additionally a draconian crackdown on immigration and immigrants dwelling within the US with out documentation.

“The response of the left” to Mission 2025, von Spakovsky laughed throughout an 8 July podcast “is admittedly telling.”


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