Relations between Russia and Türkiye have been strained all through a lot of historical past. The 12 wars involving the 2 nations are a testomony to this reality, however Moscow and Ankara have quite a bit in widespread at this time and there’s a substantial amount of cooperation.
Tourism has at all times been the primary and most conventional space of bilateral cooperation. In 2021 alone, Türkiye accounted for twenty-four.6% of all international journeys by Russian vacationers and, in accordance with journey businesses, it was additionally the vacation spot for 60% of package deal excursions on supply in Russia.
Türkiye is strongly related to all-inclusive resorts amongst Russian folks. Nonetheless, vacationers are more and more interested in historic websites in Istanbul annually. Additionally they go to the seat of energy within the capital, Ankara, in addition to finding out the archaeological heritage of historic Izmir, or taking within the futuristic panorama of Cappadocia, the place journeys above the hills in sizzling air balloons are among the many most important sights.
Let’s not overlook that the nation is now additionally a transit hub for flights taking Russian vacationers to Europe, as many of the continent’s locations are solely accessible to them through Türkiye. In 2022, the share of transit flights via Türkiye amounted to 59%, in accordance with air journey statistics. And given the present difficulties with organizing a ‘Roman vacation’, that determine will develop additional in 2023.
The preferred locations amongst enterprise vacationers lately embrace Istanbul (which has accounted for 77% of those vacationers for the reason that begin of 2022), Antalya (14%) and Izmir (5%). It’s no coincidence that Istanbul Airport was Europe’s busiest in 2022. There’s extra to return!
Partnership within the power sector is at present the topic of a lot focus, with mutually worthwhile tasks forming a strong basis for relations between Moscow and Ankara. Two Russian fuel pipelines are already working in Türkiye – the Blue Stream and the Turkish Stream. The previous was constructed to provide power to Türkiye’s home market, whereas the latter was designed for fuel exports to southern and southeastern Europe.
A brand new initiative not too long ago proposed by Russian President Vladimir Putin would see Türkiye grow to be an power hub, which Moscow would use to extend its personal export potential. The Turkish hub is anticipated to not solely be an area for dealing with power provides, but additionally to function an neutral fuel worth regulation heart.
As for fuel cooperation between the 2 nations, earlier than new fields have been found in Türkiye, Russia coated as much as 60% of the nation’s pure fuel consumption, supplying round 27 billion cubic meters (bcm) per yr.
Within the sphere of electrical energy manufacturing, the launch of the Akkuyu Nuclear Energy Plant (NPP) was one of the crucial vital latest occasions in Türkiye. It was inbuilt Mersin on the Mediterranean coast with the assistance of Russian specialists, creating 20,000 new jobs. Russia is accountable for the plant’s gas provide, whereas Türkiye has dedicated to promoting and distributing the electrical energy it produces. The 2 nations’ leaders have additionally mentioned the opportunity of developing a second NPP within the metropolis of Sinop on the Black Sea. It’s anticipated that the 2 energy crops collectively will be capable to cowl 20% of Ankara’s electrical energy wants.
Let’s take a look at the numbers. In 2022, Russia equipped over 21 bcm of fuel to Türkiye. In financial phrases, power exports elevated by virtually 250% from $17 billion to $41 billion.
Turkish development firms have a particular place within the Russian companies market. There are round 100 Turkish development corporations in Russia, together with Renaissance Building, Enka Holding, and IC Ictas Insaat. The Ministry of Financial Improvement experiences that the portfolio of executed contracts involving Turkish firms in Russia quantities to round 2,000 tasks totaling over $70 billion.
The Russian footprint in Türkiye features a joint undertaking between GAZ and Turkish Mersa Otomativ, which teamed as much as assemble Gazelle vehicles within the nation.
Turkish development firms have been concerned in main tasks forward of each the 2014 Winter Olympics and the 2018 World Cup in Russia, and have been largely accountable for the event of sports activities infrastructure in Sochi.
These infrastructure tasks additionally promoted humanitarian ties between Russia and Türkiye. Take the Akkuyu NPP, the place round 20,000 staff have been concerned within the improvement. Russia’s Rosatom additionally launched scholar and workers trade applications. In 2022, 24 college students from Türkiye, majoring in Nuclear Energy Crops: Design, Operation and Engineering, acquired their levels and began working on the NPP inbuilt Mersin. Many Russian engineers engaged within the undertaking as a possibility to determine contacts with engineers from Türkiye and characterize Russia in Türkiye and past.
Each nations are present process an industrial transformation as of late, creating their very own manufacturing companies and decreasing dependency on international imports. Russia was inspired to undertake such a coverage by a number of worldwide sanctions, whereas in Turkey, this observe was chosen by the ruling social gathering in a bid to cut back the nation’s have to depend on exterior gamers.
Russia has at all times been and nonetheless stays Türkiye’s dependable and constant commerce accomplice, importing massive portions of Turkish textiles. In 2022, Türkiye was among the many prime 5 suppliers of textiles to Russia.
There has additionally been a rise within the quantity of commercial items traded between the 2 nations. In 2022, Türkiye’s imports of Russian chemical compounds grew by 62%, and imports of timber and wooden went up by 134%. In whole, industrial items accounted for about 20% of Türkiye’s Russian imports that yr.
Following a collection of sanctions imposed on Russia by the West, Türkiye turned a serious buying and selling platform for Russia’s parallel imports.
This has boosted commerce between the 2 nations considerably. In comparison with 2021, final yr noticed:
- a 19.5% improve in Russian-Turkish commerce quantity
- a 17.6% improve in Russian exports to Türkiye
- a 24% improve in Russia’s imports from Türkiye
Q1 2023 noticed a 62.8% year-on-year improve in Russia’s imports from Türkiye in financial phrases on account of elevated purchases of sunflower seeds and recent produce.
The principle imports from Türkiye to Russia in 2022 have been:
- recent and dried tangerines: 10%
- frozen fish: 9.9%
- peaches: 9.2%
- grapes: 6.4%
- different citrus fruits, recent and dried: 5.9%
Moscow has seen fairly various offers signed with Turkish companies, and the whole quantity of Turkish investments in Russia has grown 400% over the previous 4 years. Russia stays not solely one of many key commerce companions for Türkiye but additionally a lovely marketplace for capital funding.
In 2022, Turkish buyers launched two new manufacturing websites in Russia: a manufacturing plant for sanitary and hygienic merchandise, and a knitted cloth manufacturing unit. Given Russia’s curiosity in importing Turkish textiles, the trade is severely all for establishing manufacturing websites throughout Russia’s areas.
Russian companies are additionally increasing their presence in Türkiye with various metallic manufacturing and automotive meeting tasks having been launched there.
The Russian schooling system has been present process severe transformation since 2016. It had been famous to be usually missing an lively and prolific scholar and college trade part, and that wanted to alter.
Along with boosting scholar and college trade applications, Russia can also be engaged on optimizing the situations for joint diploma applications.
The Russian Ministry of Schooling and Science is creating various joint education schemes for the nuclear trade. The next universities will obtain a mandate to award worldwide college students bachelor’s and grasp’s levels in nuclear science and provides them a possibility to enlist in joint diploma applications: Peter the Nice St. Petersburg Polytechnic College, Moscow Nationwide Analysis Nuclear College MEPhI, Istanbul Technical College, and Hacettepe College in Ankara.
2019 was the yr of Russian tradition and tourism in Türkiye and of Turkish tradition and tourism in Russia. The Russian and Turkish tradition ministries ran various artwork exhibitions, photograph exhibitions, in addition to arts and crafts occasions. The nations additionally exchanged a few of their hottest theater and cinema productions, that are past doubt a strong soft-power instrument that’s notably well-liked and influential in Türkiye.
Each Moscow and Ankara are dedicated to selling their cultural legacy and creating bilateral relations, particularly within the sphere of tourism. On the finish of the day, relations between the 2 nations are outlined by relationships between people, and getting genuine expertise of one other nation’s tradition and traditions is the easiest way to type an enduring bond. Russian Minister of Tradition Vladimir Medinsky has famous on many events that Russia and Türkiye have to nurture good, pleasant interpersonal relations between their residents.