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Abstract of modifications: ITF IPC COVID-19 Overview and An infection Prevention and Management Priorities in non-U.S. Healthcare Settings Webpage

  • Up to date transmission part to mirror CDC steering
  • Added data on sure actions that may improve danger of COVID-19 an infection with references to air flow steering by CDC and WHO
  • Up to date and re-arranged record of signs on webpage to mirror present CDC steering
  • Eliminated part on Sickness Severity
  • Amended data and references in Folks at Greater Danger for Extreme Sickness, noting that these folks must be prioritized for vaccination
  • Revised COVID-19 Preventative actions part to mirror vaccination, masks, and extra preventative actions that must be continued
  • Added further references to preventative actions part
  • Eliminated therapy part
  • Added data on IPC within the context of vaccination supply
  • Revised record of Aerosol Producing Procedures based mostly on up to date steering from WHO and up to date references

Objective and Scope of this doc

This overview was created for healthcare staff in non-U.S. healthcare settings and authorities officers at ministries of well being engaged on the Coronavirus Illness 2019 (COVID-19) response.

The knowledge on this doc attracts from the Facilities for Illness Management and Prevention (CDC) and World Well being Group (WHO) steering paperwork and An infection Prevention and Management (IPC) priorities for the response to COVID-19 in healthcare settings and consists of data that can be utilized in non-U.S. contexts.

Construction of the doc

This overview is organized by first presenting a background on coronaviruses. It then briefly describes the emergence, transmission, signs, prevention, and therapy of COVID-19. The remainder of the doc opinions COVID-19 IPC priorities, in non-U.S. healthcare settings.

Coronavirus Background:

Coronaviruses are a big household of viruses that may trigger sickness in animals or people. In people there are a number of identified coronaviruses that trigger respiratory infections. These coronaviruses vary from the widespread chilly to extra extreme illnesses similar to extreme acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Center East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and COVID-19.

Coronavirus Illness 2019:


COVID-19 was recognized in Wuhan, China in December 2019. COVID-19 is attributable to the virus extreme acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a brand new virus in people inflicting respiratory sickness which could be unfold from person-to-person. Early within the outbreak, many sufferers had been reported to have a hyperlink to a big seafood and dwell animal market; nonetheless, later instances with no hyperlink to the market confirmed person-to-person transmission of the illness. Moreover, travel-related exportation of instances occurred.


There are three important ways in which COVID-19 can unfold:

  1. By inhaling air carrying droplets or aerosol particles that comprise the SARS-CoV-2 virus when near an contaminated particular person or in poorly ventilated areas with contaminated individuals
  2. By having droplets and particles that comprise the SARS-CoV-2 virus land on the eyes, nostril, or mouth – particularly by way of splashes and sprays like a cough or sneeze
  3. By touching the eyes, nostril, or mouth with fingers which have the SARS-CoV-2 virus particles on them

The droplets that comprise the SARS-CoV-2 virus are launched when somebody with COVID-19 sneezes, coughs, or talks. Infectious droplets can land within the mouths or noses of people who find themselves close by or presumably be inhaled into the lungs. A bodily distance of at the very least 1 meter (3 ft) between individuals is beneficial by the WHO to keep away from an infection,1 whereas CDC recommends sustaining a bodily distance of at the very least 1.8 meters (6ft) between individuals. Respiratory droplets can land on fingers, objects, or surfaces across the particular person after they cough or discuss, and other people can then turn into contaminated with COVID-19 from touching fingers, objects or surfaces with droplets after which touching their eyes, nostril, or mouth. Moreover, transmission can happen from these with gentle signs or from those that don’t really feel sick.

There are specific circumstances that may improve the chance of an infection for COVID-19 similar to poorly ventilated area. In indoor areas with poor air flow, the focus of virus particles is usually larger than outside.2,3 Different elements which might be related to elevated COVID-19 danger embody extended publicity to these contaminated with COVID-19, shut contact with contaminated individuals, and some other exercise that results in publicity to a better quantity of respiratory droplets and particles.


A variety of signs for COVID-19 have been reported.4 These signs embody:

  • Fever or chills
  • Cough
  • Muscle or physique aches
  • Anorexia
  • Sore throat
  • Nasal congestion or runny nostril
  • Headache
  • Diarrhea
  • Nausea
  • Shortness of breath or problem respiration
  • Lack of odor or style

The estimated incubation interval is between 2 and 14 days with a median of 5 days. You will need to observe that some folks turn into contaminated and don’t develop any signs or really feel sick.

Folks at Greater Danger for Extreme Sickness

COVID-19 is a comparatively new illness; due to this fact, further danger elements for extreme COVID-19 could proceed to be recognized. In some instances, individuals who get COVID-19 can develop extreme issues, together with problem respiration, inflicting a necessity for hospitalization and intensive care. 5 These extreme issues typically result in loss of life. The chance of extreme illness will increase steadily as folks age. Moreover, these of all ages with underlying medical circumstances, together with however not restricted to coronary heart illness, diabetes or lung illness, are  at larger danger to develop extreme COVID-19 in comparison with these with out these circumstances.5 These at larger danger for extreme sickness must be prioritized for vaccination.6

COVID-19 Preventative Actions

COVID-19 could be prevented by way of pharmaceutical (i.e., vaccination) and non-pharmaceutical interventions (e.g., masking, bodily distancing, hand hygiene). All of those preventative measures are necessary to guard people from buying and transmitting the SARS-CoV-2 virus and must be finished along side each other.


Getting vaccinated is a preventative measure that individuals can take to keep away from getting sick with COVID-19 and to keep away from infecting others. Whereas secure and efficient vaccines are an ideal instrument for prevention, it is very important proceed different preventative actions similar to carrying masks, performing hand hygiene, bodily distancing from others, and avoiding crowded areas and areas with poor air flow.7  There are a number of vaccine candidates, and lots of have been listed beneath WHO’s emergency useexterior icon.


Carrying masks is one other necessary preventative motion for COVID-19 that ought to proceed to be carried out. When deciding on a masks, there are lots of elements to contemplate.8 Masks ought to

  • Have two or extra layers of washable, breathable material
  • Utterly cowl the nostril and mouth
  • Match comfortable in opposition to the edges of the face and never have gaps
  • Have a nostril wire to forestall air from leaking out of the highest of the masks

Additionally it is necessary to decide on and put on the correct sort of masks based mostly in your setting. For instance, in a group setting, fabric masks must be worn, whereas throughout aerosol producing procedures in a healthcare setting, must be worn.

Different preventative actions

Even with the introduction of vaccinations as a instrument for prevention in opposition to COVID-19 and the correct use of masks, CDC recommends the next key COVID-19 preventative actions: 7— avoiding crowded areas or areas which have poor air flow or put on a masks in these areas; performing correct hand hygiene; protecting excessive contact surfaces clear; monitoring signs; and getting examined if sick.

IPC for COVID-19

An infection prevention and management (IPC) is the apply of stopping or stopping the unfold of infections from the supply of healthcare providers in services like hospitals, outpatient clinics, dialysis facilities, long-term care services, or conventional practitioners. IPC is a essential a part of well being system strengthening and should be a precedence to guard sufferers and healthcare staff. Within the context of COVID-19, the IPC objective is to assist the upkeep of important healthcare providers by containing and stopping COVID-19 transmission inside healthcare services to maintain sufferers and healthcare staff wholesome and secure.

COVID-19 IPC Priorities

  1. Speedy identification of suspect instances
    1. Screening/triage at preliminary healthcare facility encounter and fast implementation of supply management
    2. Limiting the entry of healthcare staff and/or guests with suspected or confirmed COVID-19
  1. Rapid isolation and referral for testing
    1. Group sufferers with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 individually
    2. Take a look at all suspected sufferers for COVID-19
  1. Secure medical administration
    1. Rapid identification of inpatients and healthcare staff with suspected COVID-19
  1. Adherence to IPC practices
    1. Applicable use of private protecting gear (PPE)
    2. Unvaccinated healthcare staff, sufferers, and guests must be provided assets and recommended concerning the significance of vaccination.

COVID-19 IPC within the context of vaccination supply

As secure and efficient COVID-19 vaccines proceed to be delivered, there are particular suggestions and rules that must be applied and regarded for vaccine administration. Consultations and consensus between WHO, the United Nations Youngsters’s Fund (UNICEF), and the advert hoc WHO COVID-19 IPC Steering Improvement Group have led to the event of a doc that outlines key IPC rules and beneficial correct precautions for secure administration of COVID-19 vaccines. Seek the advice of the An infection prevention and management (IPC) rules and procedures for COVID-19 vaccination actionsexterior icon doc when making ready for vaccine deployment. 10

The important thing IPC rules for COVID-19 vaccine deployment set out within the doc embody:

  1. Making use of customary precautions throughout any vaccination exercise
  2. Performing further IPC precautions like masks use within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic
  3. Offering healthcare staff with particular coaching and offering the general public with focused data concerning IPC measures for secure vaccine supply
  4. Having a clear, hygienic, and well-ventilated atmosphere with applicable waste administration, and satisfactory areas that facilitate finest IPC practices like bodily distancing
  5. Guaranteeing session and adherence to nationwide steering and protocols for IPC measures, together with these associated to COVID-19

Normal and Transmission-Based mostly Precautions

Normal precautions are a set of practices that apply to the care of sufferers in all healthcare settings always. Normal precautions stay the cornerstone of an infection prevention and management. Software of those precautions relies on the character of the healthcare worker-patient interplay and the anticipated publicity to a identified infectious agent. Normal precautions embody:

  • Hand hygiene
  • Private protecting gear
  • Respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette
  • Cleansing and disinfection of units and environmental surfaces
  • Secure injection practices
  • Medicine storage and dealing with

Transmission-based precautions are a set of practices particular for sufferers with identified or suspected infectious brokers that require further management measures to forestall transmission. These precautions are used along with customary precautions.

COVID-19 Transmission-Based mostly Precautions:

Present WHO steering for healthcare staff caring for suspected or confirmed COVID-19 sufferers recommends the usage of contact and droplet precautions along with customary precautions except an aerosol generated process is being carried out, through which case airborne precautions are wanted.1 Disposable or devoted affected person care gear, similar to stethoscopes, blood strain cuffs, must be used. If gear must be shared amongst sufferers, it must be cleaned and disinfected between use for every affected person utilizing merchandise containing ethyl alcohol of at the very least 70%.

Additionally, adequately ventilated single rooms or wards are prompt. For basic ward rooms with pure air flow, satisfactory air flow for COVID-19 sufferers is taken into account to be 60 L/s per affected person. When single rooms are usually not accessible, suspected COVID-19 sufferers must be grouped along with beds at the very least 1 meter (3ft) aside based mostly on WHO’s suggestions, though some member states, together with america, have beneficial sustaining better distances every time doable. COVID-19 isolation rooms or wards ought to have devoted loos, which must be cleaned and disinfected at the very least twice each day.

Moreover, healthcare services may also contemplate designating healthcare staff to look after sufferers with COVID-19 and limiting the variety of guests allowed within the facility.

Transportation of sufferers with COVID-19 must be prevented except medically mandatory. If transportation is deemed medically mandatory, a masks must be positioned on the suspected or confirmed COVID-19 affected person. Healthcare staff must also put on the suitable PPE when transporting sufferers.


Contact and droplet precaution PPE are beneficial for healthcare staff earlier than coming into the room of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 sufferers. Healthcare staff must be educated on the proper use of PPE, together with methods to put it on and take away it. Prolonged use and re-use of sure PPE objects similar to masks and robes could be thought of when there are provide shortages. Healthcare staff ought to:

  • Use a medical masks (at the very least a surgical/medical masks)
  • Put on eye safety (goggles) or facial safety (face protect)
  • Put on a clear, non-sterile, long-sleeve robe
  • Use gloves

There’s a larger danger of self-contamination when eradicating PPE. Please see directions for placing on and eradicating PPEpdf icon for steering.

For healthcare staff performing any of the next aerosol producing procedures on sufferers with COVID-19, it’s endorsed {that a} fitted respirator masks (surgical N95 respirators, FFP2 or equal) is used versus surgical/medical masks. Along with carrying a fitted respirator masks, healthcare staff must also put on applicable PPE, together with gloves, a robe and eye safety.

Though there’s a distinction in dedication on which procedures generate infectious aerosol, the present WHO record of Aerosol Producing Procedures consists of:1

  • Endotracheal intubation
  • Bronchoscopy
  • Non-invasive air flow
  • Tracheotomy
  • Handbook air flow earlier than intubation
  • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  • Sputum induction
  • Dentistry and post-mortem procedures

An infection Prevention and Management Sources for COVID-19 in non-U.S. Healthcare Settings:


  1. WHO. An infection prevention and management throughout well being care when novel coronavirus illness (COVID-19) is suspected or confirmedexterior icon.29 June 2020.
  2. Kai-Wang To, Ok., Tak-Yin Tsang, O., Chik-Yan Yip, C., Chan, KH., Wu, TC., Man-Chun Chan, J…Yuen, KY. Constant detection of 2019 novel coronavirus in salivaexterior icon. Scientific Infectious Ailments. 12 February 2020. ciaa149.
  3. WHO. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: implications for an infection prevention precautionsexterior icon. 9 July 2020.
  4. WHO. Scientific administration of extreme acute respiratory an infection when COVID-19 is suspectedexterior icon. 13 March 2020.
  5. The Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Emergency Response Epidemiology Staff. The epidemiological traits of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus illnesses (COVID-19) – China 2020exterior icon. CDCweekly. 17 February 2020. 10.46234/ccdcw2020.032
  6. Stokes EK, Zambrano LD, Anderson KN, et al. Coronavirus Illness 2019 Case Surveillance — United States, January 22–Could 30, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69:759–765. DOI: icon
  7. Chen, J., Lu, H., Melino, G. et al. COVID-19 an infection: the China and Italy views. Cell Loss of life Dis 11, 438 (2020). icon
  8. WHO. Advise on the usage of masks within the context of COVID-19exterior icon. 5 June 2020.

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