Monday, November 28, 2022
HomeCOVID19Coronavirus Illness 2019 (COVID-19)

Coronavirus Illness 2019 (COVID-19)

When SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses are co-circulating, clinicians ought to take into account each viruses, in addition to co-infection, in sufferers with acute respiratory sickness signs due to related indicators and signs. Testing and remedy steering in precedence teams is obtainable. For extra data on influenza and Covid-19 see the NIH Remedy Tipsexterior icon.

Revisions have been made on November 3, 2020, to mirror the next:

  • New data for Laboratory and Radiographic Findings
  • New data for Pediatric Issues
  • Revisions for readability and vital updates to footnotes all through
  • Influenza alert field
  • Info on FDA approval of remdesivir

Revisions have been made on October 27, 2020, to mirror the next:

  • Up to date content material to Reinfection

Revisions have been made on September 10, 2020, to mirror the next:

  • Up to date content material to Reinfection

Revisions have been made on June 20, 2020, to mirror the next:

Revisions have been made on Could 29, 2020, to mirror the next:

Revisions have been made on Could 25, 2020, to mirror the next:

Revisions have been made on Could 20, 2020, to mirror the next:

Revisions have been made on Could 12, 2020, to mirror the next:

  • New details about COVID-19-Related Hypercoagulability
  • Up to date content material and assets to incorporate new NIH Remedy Tips
  • Minor revisions for readability

This doc gives steering on caring for sufferers contaminated with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The Nationwide Institutes of Well being (NIH) have printed tips for the scientific administration of COVID-19exterior icon ready by the COVID-19 Remedy Tips Panel. The suggestions are primarily based on scientific proof and professional opinion and are often up to date as extra knowledge grow to be out there.

For steering associated to kids with COVID-19, please see the Pediatric Issues part under.

Medical Presentation

Incubation interval

The incubation interval for COVID-19 is assumed to increase to 14 days, with a median time of 4-5 days from publicity to signs onset.(1-3) One examine reported that 97.5% of individuals with COVID-19 who’ve signs will achieve this inside 11.5 days of SARS-CoV-2 an infection.(3)


The indicators and signs of COVID-19 current at sickness onset fluctuate, however over the course of the illness many individuals with COVID-19 will expertise the next:(1,4-9)

  • Fever or chills
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath or problem respiration
  • Fatigue
  • Muscle or physique aches
  • Headache
  • New lack of style or odor
  • Sore throat
  • Congestion or runny nostril
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Diarrhea

Signs might differ with severity of illness. For instance, shortness of breath is extra generally reported amongst people who find themselves hospitalized with COVID-19 than amongst individuals with milder illness (non-hospitalized sufferers).(10, 11) Atypical displays of COVID-19 happen typically, and older adults and other people with medical comorbidities might expertise fever and respiratory signs later in the course of the course of sickness than people who find themselves youthful or who don’t have comorbidities.(12, 13) In a single examine of 1,099 hospitalized sufferers, fever was current in solely 44% at hospital admission however finally 89% of sufferers had a fever someday throughout hospitalization.(1) Fatigue, headache, and muscle aches (myalgia) are among the many mostly reported signs in people who find themselves not hospitalized, and sore throat and nasal congestion or runny nostril (rhinorrhea) additionally could also be outstanding signs. Many individuals with COVID-19 expertise gastrointestinal signs equivalent to nausea, vomiting or diarrhea, typically previous to having fever and decrease respiratory tract indicators and signs.(9) Lack of odor (anosmia) or style (ageusia) has been generally reported, in a 3rd of sufferers in a single examine, particularly amongst girls and youthful or middle-aged sufferers.(14)

Asymptomatic and Presymptomatic An infection

A number of research have documented an infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus inflicting COVID-19, in sufferers who by no means have signs (asymptomatic) and in sufferers not but symptomatic (presymptomatic).(15-29) Since people who find themselves asymptomatic should not at all times examined, the prevalence of asymptomatic an infection and detection of presymptomatic an infection just isn’t but effectively understood. Present knowledge, primarily based on reverse transcription-polymerase chain response (RT-PCR) testing for SARS-CoV-2 and on serologic research, counsel asymptomatic infections could be frequent and that the full variety of infections is probably going better than the variety of instances reported.(15,22-24,30,31) Sufferers might have abnormalities on chest imaging earlier than the onset of signs.(16)

Asymptomatic and Presymptomatic Transmission

Growing numbers of epidemiologic research have documented SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the course of the presymptomatic incubation interval.(19,28,29,32) Research utilizing RT-PCR detection have reported low cycle thresholds, indicating bigger portions of viral RNA, amongst individuals with asymptomatic and presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 an infection. Likewise in viral tradition, viral development has been noticed in specimens obtained from sufferers with asymptomatic and presymptomatic an infection.(22,24,27,33) The proportion of SARS-CoV-2 transmission on account of asymptomatic or presymptomatic an infection in contrast with symptomatic an infection just isn’t completely clear; nonetheless, latest research do counsel that people who find themselves not exhibiting signs might transmit the virus.(22,24,34)

Medical Course

Sickness Severity

The most important cohort reported so far, together with greater than 44,000 individuals with COVID-19 from China, confirmed that sickness severity can vary from delicate to vital:(35)

  • Gentle to reasonable (delicate signs as much as delicate pneumonia): 81%
  • Extreme (dyspnea, hypoxia, or greater than 50% lung involvement on imaging): 14%
  • Essential (respiratory failure, shock, or multiorgan system dysfunction): 5%

On this examine, all deaths occurred amongst sufferers with vital sickness, and the general case fatality ratio (CFR) was 2.3%.(35) The CFR amongst sufferers with vital illness was 49%.(35) Amongst kids in China, sickness severity was decrease than in adults, with 94% of affected kids having asymptomatic, delicate, or reasonable illness; 5% having extreme illness; and fewer than 1% having vital illness.(13) Amongst U.S. COVID-19 instances reported January 22–Could 30, 2020, total the proportion of people that have been hospitalized was 14%, together with 2% admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU).  Total 5% of sufferers died.(36)

Medical Development

Amongst sufferers in a number of early research from Wuhan, China who had extreme COVID-19 sickness, the median time from their onset of sickness to the time they skilled dyspnea was 5–8 days; the median time from onset of sickness to acute respiratory misery syndrome (ARDS) was 8–12 days; and the median time from onset of sickness to ICU admission was 9.5–12 days.(5,6,37,38) Clinicians ought to concentrate on the potential for some sufferers with COVID-19 to quickly deteriorate about one week after sickness onset. Amongst all hospitalized sufferers, 26%–32% of sufferers have been admitted to the ICU.(6,8,38) Amongst all sufferers, 3%–17% had ARDS in contrast with 20%–42% for hospitalized sufferers and 67%–85% for sufferers admitted to the ICU.(1,4-6,8,38) Mortality amongst sufferers admitted to the ICU ranged from 39% to 72% relying on the examine and traits of affected person inhabitants.(5,8,37,38) The median size of hospitalization amongst survivors was 10–13 days.(1,6,8)

Threat Elements for Extreme Sickness

Age is a powerful danger issue for extreme sickness, issues, and demise.(1,6,8,13,34,35,39-42) Among the many cohort of greater than 44,000 confirmed instances of COVID-19 in China, the CFR elevated with advancing age, and was highest among the many oldest cohort.  Mortality amongst individuals 80 years and older was 14.8%; 70–79 years, 8.0%; 60–69 years, 3.6%; 50–59 years, 1.3%; 40–49 years, 0.4%; and for these youthful than 40 years, 0.2%.(35) Primarily based on U.S. epidemiologic knowledge by March 16, 2020, CFR was highest in individuals aged 85 years or older (vary 10%–27%), adopted by individuals aged 65–84 years (3%–11%), aged 55–64 years (1%–3%), and was decrease in individuals youthful than 55 years (<1%).(39)

CFR within the giant cohort in China was elevated for sufferers with comorbidities, with 10.5% of these with underlying heart problems, 7.3% of these with diabetes, 6.3% of these with persistent respiratory illness, and 5.6% of these with most cancers dying of COVID-related sickness.(35)  Prior stroke, diabetes, persistent lung illness, and persistent kidney illness have all been related to elevated sickness severity and adversarial outcomes on account of COVID-19.  Coronary heart circumstances, together with coronary heart failure, coronary artery illness, cardiomyopathies, and pulmonary hypertension, put individuals at greater danger for extreme sickness from COVID-19. Individuals with hypertension could also be at an elevated danger for extreme sickness from COVID-19 and will proceed to take their drugs as prescribed. (43)

Accounting for variations in age and prevalence of underlying circumstances, the mortality related to COVID-19 that has been reported in the US seems just like experiences from China.(36, 39) See People Who Are at Elevated Threat for Extreme Sickness to be taught extra about who’s at elevated danger.


Thus far, restricted knowledge exist about reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 after restoration from COVID-19.(44-46) Printed case experiences have proven that reinfection is feasible, however it’s nonetheless unclear how lengthy individuals who have recovered from COVID-19 are protected towards reinfection with SARS-CoV-2, what focus of antibodies is required to confer safety, and the way typically reinfection might happen.(44-46)

Whereas viral RNA shedding declines with decision of signs, SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding might proceed for days to weeks.(37,47,48) Thus, detection of viral RNA throughout convalescence doesn’t essentially point out replication-competent virus (infectiousness) or the presence of recent infectious virus. Medical an infection has been correlated with the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies.(48-51) Individuals who have recovered can proceed to shed detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA in higher respiratory specimens for as much as 3 months after sickness onset, albeit at concentrations significantly decrease than throughout sickness, in ranges the place replication-competent virus has not been reliably recovered and infectiousness is unlikely. For extra details about period of viral shedding amongst individuals with SARS-CoV-2 an infection, see Length of Isolation and Precautions for Adults with COVID-19. Additionally see CDC’s Investigative Standards for Suspected Instances of SARS-CoV-2 Reinfection in addition to the Widespread Investigation Protocol for Investigating Suspected SARS-CoV-2 Reinfection.

Laboratory and Radiographic Findings

Testing for An infection

Analysis of COVID-19 requires detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA by RT-PCR. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA is healthier in nasopharynx samples in contrast with throat samples.(32,47,52) Decrease respiratory samples might have higher viral yield than higher respiratory samples.(53) SARS-CoV-2 antigen assessments will also be utilized in a wide range of testing methods. See Interim Steerage for Speedy Antigen Testing for SARS-CoV-2 for extra details about the efficient use of antigen assessments in several testing conditions. SARS-CoV-2 RNA has additionally been detected in stool and blood.(51,54) Detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in blood could also be a marker of extreme sickness.(55)

An infection with each SARS-CoV-2 and with different respiratory viruses (e.g., influenza) or micro organism is effectively documented, and detection of one other respiratory pathogen doesn’t rule out COVID-19.(56)  Clinicians are inspired to think about testing for different viral causes of respiratory sickness, for instance influenza, along with testing for SARS-CoV-2 relying on affected person age, season, or scientific setting. Clinicians must also take into account bacterial and fungal causes of pneumonia (e.g. Legionnaires’ illness in sufferers uncovered to water from beforehand closed buildings or in a single day journey, pneumococcal pneumonia, and coccidioidomycosis) in sufferers who’re PCR-negative for SARS CoV-2, as clinically indicated. See IDSA/ATS tipsexterior icon.

For extra details about COVID-19 testing and specimen assortment, dealing with and storage, go to Overview of Testing for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) and Continuously Requested Questions on COVID-19 for Laboratories.

Different Laboratory Findings

Lymphopenia is the commonest laboratory discovering amongst individuals with COVID-19, and is present in as much as 83% of hospitalized sufferers.(1,5) Lymphopenia, neutrophilia, elevated serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase ranges, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, excessive C-reactive protein (CRP), and excessive ferritin ranges could also be related to better sickness severity.(1,5,6,8) Elevated D-dimer and lymphopenia have been related to mortality.(8,37,57,58) Procalcitonin is often regular on admission, however might enhance amongst these sufferers admitted to an ICU.(4-6) Sufferers with vital sickness had excessive plasma ranges of inflammatory makers, suggesting potential immune dysregulation.(5,59)

Radiographic Findings

Chest radiographs of sufferers with COVID-19 usually reveal bilateral air-space consolidation, though some sufferers have unremarkable chest radiographs early within the illness.(1,47) Chest Computerized Tomography (CT) pictures from sufferers with COVID-19 usually reveal bilateral, peripheral floor glass opacities.(60-71) As a result of this chest CT imaging sample is non-specific and could be present in pneumonias brought on by different infections, the diagnostic worth of chest CT imaging for COVID-19 could also be low and dependent upon radiographic interpretation.(70) One examine discovered that 56% of sufferers who introduced inside two days of prognosis had a traditional CT.(62) Conversely, different research have recognized chest CT abnormalities in sufferers previous to the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in RT-PCR testing of nasopharyngeal samples.(71) Given the variability in chest imaging findings, chest radiograph or CT alone just isn’t advisable for the prognosis of COVID-19. The American School of Radiology additionally doesn’t advocate CT for screening, or as a first-line check for prognosis of COVID-19. (See American School of Radiology Suggestionsexterior icon).

Medical Administration and Remedy

The Nationwide Institutes of Well being (NIH) printed tips on prophylaxis use, testing, and administration of sufferers with COVID-19. For extra data, please go to the NIH Coronavirus Illness 2019 (COVID-19) Remedy Tipsexterior icon. The suggestionsexterior icon are primarily based on scientific proof and professional opinion and are often up to date as extra knowledge grow to be out there. The U.S. Meals and Drug Administration (FDA) has accredited one drug remdesivir (Veklury) for the remedy of COVID-19 in sure conditions. Medical administration of COVID-19 contains an infection prevention and management measures and supportive care, together with supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilatory assist when indicated.

Gentle to Reasonable Illness

Sufferers with a gentle scientific presentation (absence of viral pneumonia and hypoxia) might not initially require hospitalization, and most sufferers will be capable to handle their sickness at house. The choice to watch a affected person within the inpatient or outpatient setting ought to be made on a case-by-case foundation. This resolution will rely upon the scientific presentation, requirement for supportive care, potential danger elements for extreme illness, and the flexibility of the affected person to self-isolate at house. Sufferers with danger elements for extreme sickness (see Individuals Who Are at an Elevated  Threat for Extreme Sickness) ought to be monitored carefully given the potential danger of development to extreme sickness, particularly within the second week after symptom onset.(5,6,35)

For data concerning an infection prevention and management suggestions, please see An infection Management Steerage for Healthcare Professionals about Coronavirus (COVID-19).

Extreme Illness

Some sufferers with COVID-19 can have extreme illness requiring hospitalization for administration. Inpatient administration contains supportive administration of the commonest issues of extreme COVID-19: pneumonia, hypoxemic respiratory failure/ARDS, sepsis and septic shock, cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia, acute kidney damage, and issues from extended hospitalization, together with secondary bacterial and fungal infections, thromboembolism, gastrointestinal bleeding, and significant sickness polyneuropathy/myopathy.(1,4-6,13,35,40,72-74)

Extra data could be discovered at  Medical Questions on COVID-19: Questions and Solutions. Further assets and steering paperwork on the remedy and administration of COVID-19, together with inpatient administration of critically ailing sufferers, are supplied under.

Hypercoagulability and COVID-19

Some sufferers with COVID-19 might have indicators of a hypercoagulable state and be at elevated danger for venous and arterial thrombosis of enormous and small vessels.(57,58,75-80) Laboratory abnormalities generally noticed amongst hospitalized sufferers with COVID-19-associated coagulopathy embrace:

  • Gentle thrombocytopenia
  • Elevated D-dimer ranges
  • Elevated fibrin degradation merchandise
  • Extended prothrombin time

Elevated D-dimer ranges have been strongly related to better danger of demise.(8,37,57,58)

There are a number of experiences of hospitalized sufferers with thrombotic issues, most steadily deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.(58,75-77) Different reported manifestations embrace:

  • Microvascular thrombosis of the toes (“COVID toes”)
  • Clotting of intra-vascular catheters
  • Myocardial damage with ST-segment elevation
  • Massive vessel strokes(78,79)

The pathogenesis for COVID-19-associated hypercoagulability stays unknown. Nevertheless, hypoxia and systemic irritation secondary to COVID-19 might result in excessive ranges of inflammatory cytokines and activation of the coagulation pathway.(81)

Information out there to tell scientific administration round prophylaxis or remedy of venous thromboembolism in COVID-19 sufferers are nonetheless evolving, with new data launched typically.  A number of nationwide skilled associations present assets for up-to-date data regarding COVID-19-associated hypercoagulability, together with administration of anticoagulation. Extra data on hypercoagulability and COVID-19 is obtainable from the American Society of Hematologyexterior icon and Nationwide Institutes of Well beingexterior icon.

Pediatric Issues

More and more, knowledge point out that the scientific signs skilled by kids with COVID-19 are just like adults, however illness is normally milder than adults and severity of signs varies by age of the kid. Many kids contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 stay asymptomatic or have delicate sickness.(82,83) Generally reported signs in kids with COVID-19 embrace cough or fever, and lots of kids additionally expertise gastrointestinal or different signs.(84-88) Despite the fact that most youngsters with COVID-19 have asymptomatic or delicate sickness, extreme outcomes, together with deaths, have been reported in kids.(89)Youngsters of all ages with sure underlying medical circumstances could also be at elevated danger of extreme sickness; additionally infants (<12 months of age) could also be at elevated danger for extreme sickness from COVID-19.(89, 90)

CDC and companions are investigating the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in kids (MIS-C) related to COVID-19. Sufferers with MIS-C normally current with persistent fever, stomach ache, vomiting, diarrhea, pores and skin rash, mucocutaneous lesions and, in extreme instances, hypotension and shock. Affected kids have elevated laboratory markers of irritation (e.g., CRP, ferritin), and a majority of sufferers have laboratory markers of injury to the guts (e.g., troponin; B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) or proBNP). Some sufferers have myocarditis, cardiac dysfunction, and acute kidney damage. Not all kids with MIS-C expertise the identical indicators and signs, and a few kids might have signs not listed right here. MIS-C might start weeks after a baby was contaminated with SARS-CoV-2. The kid might need been contaminated from an asymptomatic contact and, in some instances, the kid and their caregivers may not understand that the kid had been contaminated.

For expanded concerns on the care of youngsters with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 and related issues, confer with:

Investigational Therapeutics

The Nationwide Institutes of Well being have printed tips for the medical administration of COVID-19exterior icon ready by the COVID-19 Remedy Tips Panel. These tips comprise details about therapeutics and will probably be up to date as new data emerges and medicines and different therapeutic interventions are accredited to be used by FDA. Individuals in search of details about registered scientific trials for COVID-19 in the US can seek for such data right here: ClinicalTrials.govexterior icon.

Discontinuation of Transmission-Primarily based Precautions or Residence Isolation

Sufferers who’ve clinically recovered and are capable of discharge from the hospital, however who haven’t been cleared from their Transmission-Primarily based Precautions, can proceed isolation at their place of residence till cleared. For suggestions on discontinuation of Transmission-Primarily based Precautions or house isolation for sufferers who’ve recovered from COVID-19, see:

  1. Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, et al. Medical Traits of Coronavirus Illness 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 2020 Apr 30;382:1708– doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2002032exterior icon.
  2. Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, et al. Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus-Contaminated Pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2020 Mar 26;382:1199–207. doi:10.1056/nejmoa2001316exterior icon.
  3. Lauer SA, Grantz KH, Bi Q, et al. The Incubation Interval of Coronavirus Illness 2019 (COVID-19) From Publicly Reported Confirmed Instances: Estimation and Utility. Ann Intern Med. 2020 Could 5;172(9):577–82. doi:10.7326/M20-0504exterior icon.
  4. Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, et al. Epidemiological and scientific traits of 99 instances of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive examine. Lancet. 2020 Feb;395:507–13. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7exterior icon.
  5. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, et al. Medical options of sufferers contaminated with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020 Feb;395:497–506. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5exterior icon.
  6. Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, et al. Medical Traits of 138 Hospitalized Sufferers With 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Contaminated Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA. 2020 Feb 7.;323(11):1061–9. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.1585exterior icon.
  7. Xu XW, Wu XX, Jiang XG, et al. Medical findings in a gaggle of sufferers contaminated with the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-Cov-2) outdoors of Wuhan, China: retrospective case sequence. BMJ. 2020 Feb 19;368:m606. doi:10.1136/bmj.m606exterior icon.
  8. Wu C, Chen X, Cai Y, et al. Threat Elements Related With Acute Respiratory Misery Syndrome and Loss of life in Sufferers With Coronavirus Illness 2019 Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA Intern Med. 2020 Mar 13;180(7):934–43. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.0994exterior icon.
  9. Pan L, Mu M, Yang P, et al. Medical Traits of COVID-19 Sufferers With Digestive Signs in Hubei, China: A Descriptive, Cross-Sectional, Multicenter Examine. Am J Gastroenterol. 2020 Could;115(5):766–73. doi:10.14309/ajg.0000000000000620exterior icon.
  10. Killerby ME, Hyperlink-Gelles R, Haight SC, et al. Traits Related to Hospitalization Amongst Sufferers with COVID-19 — Metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, March–April 2020. MMWR. 2020 Jun 26; 69:790–794. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6925e1exterior icon.
  11. Tenforde MW, Rose EB, Lindsell CJ, et al. Traits of Grownup Outpatients and Inpatients with COVID-19 —– 11 Educational Medical Facilities, United States, March––Could 2020. MMWR. 2020 Jul 3;69:841-846. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6926e3exterior icon.
  12. Cai J, Xu J, Lin D, et al. A Case Collection of youngsters with 2019 novel coronavirus an infection: scientific and epidemiological options. Clin Infect Dis 2020;71(6):1547–-1551. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa198exterior icon.
  13. Dong Y, Mo X, Hu Y, et al. Epidemiology of COVID-19 Amongst Youngsters in China. Pediatrics. 2020 Jun;145(6): e20200702. doi:10.1542/peds.2020-0702exterior icon.
  14. Giacomelli A, Pezzati L, Conti F, et al. Self-reported olfactory and style issues in SARS-CoV-2 sufferers: a cross-sectional examine. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Aug;71(15):889–-890. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa330exterior icon.
  15. Lu X, Zhang L, Du H, et al. SARS-CoV-2 An infection in Youngsters. N Engl J Med. 2020 Apr 23;382:1663-5. doi:10.1056/NEJMc2005073exterior icon.
  16. Chan JF, Yuan S, Kok KH, et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia related to the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a examine of a household cluster. Lancet. 2020 Feb;395:514–-23. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30154-9exterior icon.
  17. Hu Z, Music C, Xu C, et al. Medical traits of 24 asymptomatic infections with COVID-19 screened amongst shut contacts in Nanjing, China. Sci China Life Sci. 2020 Mar 4;63:706–-11. doi:10.1007/s11427-020-1661-4exterior icon.
  18. Wang Y, Liu Y, Liu L, Wang X, Luo N, Ling L. Medical final result of 55 asymptomatic instances on the time of hospital admission contaminated with SARS-Coronavirus-2 in Shenzhen, China. J Infect Dis. 2020 Jun 1. doi:10.1093/infdis/jiaa119exterior icon.
  19. Pan X, Chen D, Xia Y, et al. Asymptomatic instances in a household cluster with SARS-CoV-2 an infection. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Apr;20:410—1. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30114-6exterior icon.
  20. Bai Y, Yao L, Wei T, et al. Presumed Asymptomatic Provider Transmission of COVID-19. JAMA. 2020 Feb 21;323(14):1406-1407. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.2565exterior icon.
  21. Kam KQ, Yung CF, Cui L, et al. A Nicely Toddler with Coronavirus Illness 2019 (COVID-19) with Excessive Viral Load. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Aug 1;71(15):847–9. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa201exterior icon.
  22. Kimball A, Hatfield KM, Arons M, et al. Asymptomatic and Presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infections in Residents of a Lengthy-Time period Care Expert Nursing Facility — King County, Washington, March 2020. MMWR. 2020 Mar 27;69:377-81. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6913e1exterior icon.
  23. Roxby AC, Greninger AL, Hatfield KM, et al. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Amongst Residents and Workers Members of an Unbiased and Assisted Dwelling Neighborhood for Older Adults —– Seattle, Washington, 2020. MMWR. 2020 Apr 3;69:416–8. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6914e2exterior icon.
  24. Mizumoto Okay, Kagaya Okay, Zarebski A, Chowell G. Estimating the asymptomatic proportion of coronavirus illness 2019 (COVID-19) instances on board the Diamond Princess cruise ship, Yokohama, Japan, 2020. Euro Surveill. 2020 Feb 5;25. doi:10.2807percent2F1560-7917.ES.2020.25.10.2000180exterior icon.
  25. Hoehl S, Rabenau H, Berger A, et al. Proof of SARS-CoV-2 An infection in Returning Vacationers from Wuhan, China. N Engl J Med. 2020 Mar 26;382:1278–80. doi:10.1056/NEJMc2001899exterior icon.
  26. Wei WE, Li Z, Chiew CJ, Yong SE, Toh MP, Lee VJ. Presymptomatic Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 —– Singapore, January 23–-March 16, 2020. MMWR. 2020 Apr 1;69:411-5. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6914e1exterior icon.
  27. Tong ZD, Tang A, Li KF, et al. Potential Presymptomatic Transmission of SARS-CoV-2, Zhejiang Province, China, 2020. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Could;26:1052–4. doi:10.3201/eid2605.200198.
  28. Qian G, Yang N, Ma AHY, et al. A COVID-19 Transmission inside a household cluster by presymptomatic infectors in China. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Mar 23;71(15):861–2. org:10.1093/cid/ciaa316exterior icon.
  29. Rothe C, Schunk M, Sothmann P, et al. Transmission of 2019-nCoV An infection from an Asymptomatic Contact in Germany. N Engl J Med. 2020 Mar 5;382:970–1. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2001468exterior icon.
  30. Havers, F.P., Reed, C., Lim, T., Montgomery, J.M., Klena, J.D., Corridor, A.J., Fry, A.M., Cannon, D.L., Chiang, C.F., Gibbons, A. and Krapiunaya, I. Seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in 10 websites in the US, March 23–Could 12, 2020. JAMA Inner Drugs. 2020 Jul 21. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.4130exterior icon.
  31. Rosenberg ES, Tesoriero JM, Rosenthal EM, et al. Cumulative incidence and prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 an infection in New York. Ann Epidemiol. 2020 Aug;48:23–9. doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2020.06.004exterior icon.
  32. Zou L, Ruan F, Huang M, et al. SARS-CoV-2 Viral Load in Higher Respiratory Specimens of Contaminated Sufferers. N Engl J Med. 2020 Mar 19;382:1177–9. org:10.1056/NEJMc2001737exterior icon.
  33. Arons M.M., Hatfield Okay.M., Reddy S.C., Kimball A., James A., Jacobs J.R. Presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infections and Transmission in a Expert Nursing Facility. N Engl J Med. 2020 Could 28;382:2081–90. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2008457exterior icon.
  34. Li R, Pei S, Chen B, et al. Substantial undocumented an infection facilitates the fast dissemination of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Science. 2020 Could 1;368(6490):489–93. icon.
  35. Wu Z, McGoogan JM. Traits of and Vital Classes From the Coronavirus Illness 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China: Abstract of a Report of 72314 Instances From the Chinese language Middle for Illness Management and Prevention. JAMA. 2020 Feb 24;323(13):1239–42. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.2648exterior icon.
  36. Stokes EK, Zambrano LD, Anderson KN, et al. Coronavirus Illness 2019 Case Surveillance — United States, January 22–Could 30, 2020. MMWR. 2020 Jun 19;69:759–765. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6924e2exterior icon.
  37. Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, et al. Medical course and danger elements for mortality of grownup inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort examine. 2020 Jun;395:1054–62. icon.
  38. Yang X, Yu Y, Xu J, et al. Medical course and outcomes of critically ailing sufferers with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a single-centered, retrospective, observational examine. Lancet Respir Med. 2020 Apr; 8(5):475–81. icon.
  39. Bialek S, Boundy E, Bowen V, et al. Extreme Outcomes Amongst Sufferers with Coronavirus Illness 2019 (COVID-19) — United States, February 12–March 16, 2020. MMWR. 2020 Mar 18;69:343-6. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6912e2exterior icon.
  40. Arentz M, Yim E, Klaff L, et al. Traits and Outcomes of 21 Critically In poor health Sufferers With COVID-19 in Washington State. JAMA. 2020 Mar 19;323(16)1612–4. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.4326exterior icon.
  41. Livingston E, Bucher Okay. Coronavirus Illness 2019 (COVID-19) in Italy. JAMA. 2020 Mar 17;323(14):1335. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.4344exterior icon.
  42. Jackson BR et al., Predictors at admission of mechanical air flow and demise in an observational cohort of adults hospitalized with COVID-19. Medical Infectious Ailments. 2020 Sep 24; ciaa1459. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa1459exterior icon.
  43. Chow N, Fleming-Dutra Okay, Gierke R, et al. Preliminary Estimates of the Prevalence of Chosen Underlying Well being Circumstances Amongst Sufferers with Coronavirus Illness 2019 — United States, February 12–March 28, 2020. MMWR. 2020 Mar 31;69:382–6. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6913e2exterior icon.
  44. To KK, Hung IF, Ip JD, et al. COVID-19 re-infection by a phylogenetically distinct SARS-coronavirus-2 pressure confirmed by complete genome sequencing. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Aug 25; ciaa1275. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa1275exterior icon.
  45. Tillett R, Sevinsky J, Hartley P, et al. Genomic Proof for a Case of Reinfection with SARS-CoV-2. SSRN. 2020 Aug 31. Out there at: doi:10.2139/ssrn.3680955exterior icon.
  46. Van Elslande JV, Vermeersch P, Vandervoort Okay, et al. Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 reinfection by a phylogenetically distinct pressure. Medical Infectious Ailments. 2020 Sep 5; ciaa1330. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa1330exterior icon.
  47. Younger BE, Ong SWX, Kalimuddin S, et al. Epidemiologic Options and Medical Course of Sufferers Contaminated With SARS-CoV-2 in Singapore. JAMA. 2020 Mar 3;323(15):1488–94. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.3204exterior icon.
  48. Zhao J, Yuan Q, Wang H, et al. Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in sufferers of novel coronavirus illness 2019. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Could 28. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa344exterior icon.
  49. Zhang W, Du RH, Li B, et al. Molecular and serological investigation of 2019-nCoV contaminated sufferers: implication of a number of shedding routes. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020 Feb 7;9:386–9. doi:10.1080/22221751.2020.1729071exterior icon.
  50. Guo L, Ren L, Yang S, et al. Profiling Early Humoral Response to Diagnose Novel Coronavirus Illness (COVID-19). Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Aug;71(15):778–85. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa310exterior icon.
  51. Wang W, Xu Y, Gao R, et al. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in Totally different Forms of Medical Specimens. JAMA. 2020 Mar 11;323(18):1843-33. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.3786exterior icon.
  52. To KK, Tsang OT, Leung WS, et al. Temporal profiles of viral load in posterior oropharyngeal saliva samples and serum antibody responses throughout an infection by SARS-CoV-2: an observational cohort examine. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Could;20(5):565–74. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30196-1exterior icon.
  53. Mohammadi A, Esmaeilzadeh E, Li Y, Bosch RJ, Li J. SARS-CoV-2 Detection in Totally different Respiratory Websites: A Systematic Evaluate and Meta-Evaluation. EBioMedicine. 2020 Sep;59(102903). doi:10.1016/j.ebiom.2020.102903exterior icon.
  54. Zhang C, Shi L, Wang FS. Liver damage in COVID-19: administration and challenges. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020 Could;5:428–30. doi:10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30057-1exterior icon.
  55. Chen W, Lan Y, Yuan X, et al. Detectable 2019-nCoV viral RNA in blood is a powerful indicator for the additional scientific severity. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020 Feb 25;9:469–73. doi:10.1080/22221751.2020.1732837exterior icon.
  56. Ding Q, Lu P, Fan Y, Xia Y, Liu M. The scientific traits of pneumonia sufferers coinfected with 2019 novel coronavirus and influenza virus in Wuhan, China. J Med Virol. 2020 Mar 20;92(9):1549-1555. doi:10.1002/jmv.25781exterior icon.
  57. Tang N, Li D, Wang X, Solar Z. Irregular coagulation parameters are related to poor prognosis in sufferers with novel coronavirus pneumonia. J Thromb Haemost. 2020 Feb 19;18(4). doi:10.1111/jth.14768exterior icon.
  58. American Venous Discussion board. Issues in prophylaxis and remedy of VTE in COVID-19 Sufferers. 2020. Accessed April 2020 at icon.
  59. Qin C, Zhou L, Hu Z, et al. Dysregulation of immune response in sufferers with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Mar 12;71(15):762–8). doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa248exterior icon.
  60. Shi H, Han X, Jiang N, et al. Radiological findings from 81 sufferers with COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive examine. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Apr;20:425–34. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30086-4exterior icon.
  61. Ai T, Yang Z, Hou H, et al. Correlation of Chest CT and RT-PCR Testing in Coronavirus Illness 2019 (COVID-19) in China: A Report of 1014 Instances. Radiology. 2020 Feb 26;296(2):E32–E40. doi:10.1148/radiol.2020200642exterior icon.
  62. Bernheim A, Mei X, Huang M, et al. Chest CT Findings in Coronavirus Illness-19 (COVID-19): Relationship to Length of An infection. Radiology. 2020 Feb 20;295(3):685–91. doi:10.1148/radiol.2020200463exterior icon.
  63. Lei J, Li J, Li X, Qi X. CT Imaging of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Pneumonia. Radiology. 2020 Jan 31;295(1):18. doi:10.1148/radiol.2020200236exterior icon.
  64. Shi H, Han X, Zheng C. Evolution of CT Manifestations in a Affected person Recovered from 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. Radiology. 2020 Feb 7;295(1):20. doi:10.1148/radiol.2020200269exterior icon.
  65. Wang Y, Dong C, Hu Y, et al. Temporal Adjustments of CT Findings in 90 Sufferers with COVID-19 Pneumonia: A Longitudinal Examine. Radiology. 2020 Mar 19;296(2):E55–-E64. doi:10.1148/radiol.2020200843exterior icon.
  66. Xu X, Yu C, Qu J, et al. Imaging and scientific options of sufferers with 2019 novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2020 Feb 28;47:1275–80. doi:10.1007/s00259-020-04735-9exterior icon.
  67. Yang W, Cao Q, Qin L, et al. Medical traits and imaging manifestations of the 2019 novel coronavirus illness (COVID-19):A multi-center examine in Wenzhou metropolis, Zhejiang, China. J Infect. 2020 Apr;80(4):388–93. doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2020.02.016exterior icon.
  68. Zhao W, Zhong Z, Xie X, Yu Q, Liu J. Relation Between Chest CT Findings and Medical Circumstances of Coronavirus Illness (COVID-19) Pneumonia: A Multicenter Examine. Am J Roentgenol. 2020 Could;214(5):1072–7. doi:10.2214/AJR.20.22976exterior icon.
  69. Pan F, Ye T, Solar P, et al. Time Course of Lung Adjustments On Chest CT Throughout Restoration From 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pneumonia. Radiology. 2020 Feb 13;295(3):715–21. doi:10.1148/radiol.2020200370exterior icon.
  70. Bai HX, Hsieh B, Xiong Z, et al. Efficiency of radiologists in differentiating COVID-19 from viral pneumonia on chest CT. Radiology. 2020 Mar 10;296(2): E46–E54. doi:10.1148/radiol.2020200823exterior icon.
  71. Xie X, Zhong Z, Zhao W, Zheng C, Wang F, Liu J. Chest CT for Typical 2019-nCoV Pneumonia: Relationship to Damaging RT-PCR Testing. Radiology. 2020 Feb 12;296(2): E41–E45. doi:10.1148/radiol.2020200343exterior icon.
  72. Guo T, Fan Y, Chen M, et al. Cardiovascular Implications of Deadly Outcomes of Sufferers With Coronavirus Illness 2019 (COVID-19). JAMA Cardiol. 2020 Mar 27;5(7): 811–818. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2020.1017exterior icon.
  73. Inciardi RM, Lupi L, Zaccone G, et al. Cardiac Involvement in a Affected person With Coronavirus Illness 2019 (COVID-19). JAMA Cardiol. 2020 Mar 27;5(7):811–8. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2020.1017exterior icon.
  74. Shi S, Qin M, Shen B, et al. Affiliation of Cardiac Harm With Mortality in Hospitalized Sufferers With COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. JAMA Cardiol. 2020 Mar 25;5(7):802–10. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2020.0950exterior icon.
  75. Klok, FA; Kruip, MJHA; van der Meer NJM et al. Incidence of thrombotic issues in critically ailing ICU sufferers with COVID-19. Thrombosis Analysis. 2020 Jul;191:145–7. doi:10.1016/j.thromres.2020.04.013exterior icon.
  76. Helms, J; Tacquard, C; Severac, F et al.  Excessive danger of thrombosis in sufferers in extreme SARS-CoV-2 an infection: a multicenter potential cohort examine. Intensive Care Drugs. 2020 Could 4;46(6):1089–8. doi:10.1007/s00134-020-06062-xexterior icon.
  77. Grillet, F; Behr, J; Calame, H et al.  Acute Pulmonary Embolism Related to COVID-19 Pneumonia Detected by Pulmonary CT Angiography. Radiology 2020. Apr 23;296(3):E186–E188. doi:10.1148/radiol.2020201544exterior icon.
  78. Oxley, T; Mocco, J; Majidi,S et al. Massive-Vessel Stroke as a Presenting Function of Covid-19 within the Younger. N Engl J Med. 2020 Apr 28;382:e60. doi:10.1056/NEJMc2009787exterior icon.
  79. Li, Y; Wang, M; Zhou, Y et al.  Acute Cerebrovascular Illness Following COVID-19: A Single Middle, Retrospective, Observational Examine. Stroke Vasc Neurol. 2020 Jul 2;5(3):e000431. doi:10.1136/svn-2020-000431exterior icon.
  80. Margo,C; Mulvey, J; Berlin, D et al. Complement related microvascular damage and thrombosis within the pathogenesis of extreme COVID-19 an infection: A report of 5 instances. Translational Analysis. 2020 Jun;220:1–13. doi:10.1016/j.trsl.2020.04.007exterior icon.
  81. Merad, M., Martin, J.C. Pathological irritation in sufferers with COVID-19: a key position for monocytes and macrophages. Nat Rev Immunol. 2020 Could 6;20:355–62. doi:10.1038/s41577-020-0331-4exterior icon.
  82. Assaker, Rita, et al. Presenting signs of COVID-19 in kids: a meta-analysis of printed research. British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2020 Sep;125(3):E330–E332. doi:10.1016/j.bja.2020.05.026exterior icon.
  83. Poline et al. Systematic SARS-CoV-2 screening at hospital admission in kids: A French potential multicenter examine. Medical Infectious Illness. 2020 Jul 25:ciaa1044. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa1044exterior icon.
  84. Dong Y, Mo X, Hu Y, et al. Epidemiology of COVID-19 Amongst Youngsters in China. Pediatrics.2020 Jun. doi:10.1542/peds.2020-0702exterior icon.
  85. Foster CE, Moulton EA, Munoz FM, et al. Coronavirus Illness 2019 in Youngsters Cared for at Texas Youngsters’s Hospital: Preliminary Medical Traits and Outcomes. Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Ailments Society.2020 Jun 6;9(3):373–7. doi:10.1093/jpids/piaa072exterior icon.
  86. Xu H, Liu E, Xie J, et al. A comply with up examine of youngsters contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 from Western China. Annals of Translational Drugs. 2020 Could;8(10):623. doi:10.21037/atm-20-3192exterior icon.
  87. Shekerdemian LS, Mahmood NR, Wolfe KK, et al. Traits and Outcomes of Youngsters With Coronavirus Illness 2019 (COVID-19) An infection Admitted to US and Canadian Pediatric Intensive Care Items. JAMA Pediatrics. 2020 Could 11;174(9):868–73. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1948exterior icon.
  88. Mannheim J, Gretsch S, Layden JE, Fricchione MJ. Traits of Hospitalized Pediatric COVID-19 Instances — Chicago, Illinois, March–April 2020. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2020 Jun 1; piaa070. doi:10.1093/jpids/piaa070exterior icon.
  89. Kim L, Whitaker M, O’Halloran A, et al. Hospitalization Charges and Traits of Youngsters Aged <18 Years Hospitalized with Laboratory-Confirmed COVID-19 — COVID-NET, 14 States, March 1–July 25, 2020. MMWR. 2020 Aug 14;69(32):1081–88. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6932e3exterior icon.
  90. Bellino S, et al. COVID-19 Illness Severity Threat Elements for Pediatric Sufferers in Italy. Pediatrics. 2020 Oct;146(4):e2020009399. doi:10.1542/peds.2020-009399exterior icon.
  91. Horby, Peter, et al. Dexamethasone in Hospitalized Sufferers with Covid-19 — Preliminary Report. N Engl J Med. 2020 Jul 17. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2021436exterior icon.

Supply hyperlink

- Advertisment -

Most Popular

Recent Comments

English EN Spanish ES French FR Portuguese PT German DE