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Coronavirus Illness 2019 (COVID-19)


The Inhabitants Connectivity throughout Borders (PopCAB) toolkit is a toolkit for gathering and analyzing details about inhabitants mobility to tell public well being interventions. It determines the sorts of vacationers transferring by means of an space, the routes taken, and the explanations for journey. Understanding these patterns of motion can assist inform preparedness and response methods for communicable illnesses, together with COVID-19.


International mobility and cross-border motion have contributed to continued unfold of COVID-19 worldwide. Border closures, motion restrictions, and different COVID-19 mitigation insurance policies have altered the place individuals are transferring and the way they’re getting there. Characterizing these patterns of motion is essential to informing tailor-made public well being interventions. Public well being officers can implement CDC’s PopCAB toolkit to visualise inhabitants motion patterns and determine areas the place officers can strengthen tailor-made interventions to forestall, detect, and reply to the unfold of communicable illnesses. For instance, the data can information learn how to allocate assets for COVID-19 response, together with prioritizing factors of entry (POE) with excessive connectivity to outbreak areas. The knowledge may also contribute to getting ready multisectoral companions for the reopening of borders to worldwide journey.


The general objective of implementing PopCAB is to assemble, analyze, and apply details about inhabitants mobility to tell public well being interventions.

PopCAB Toolkit Contents

  • Trainings modules
  • Job aids
  • FGD and KII template guides
  • Orientation scripts
  • Participant sign-in sheet
  • Instance spatial database
  • Instance annotated map


PopCAB consists of focus group discussions (FGD) and key informant interviews (KII), every with a participatory mapping part. Public well being practitioners implement the PopCAB toolkit to facilitate actions with key stakeholders on the nationwide, subnational, and group ranges. They conduct these actions in areas of curiosity which are near an outbreak zone, border crossing factors, massive gathering factors, or closely trafficked transportation routes. The staff can full knowledge assortment and evaluation inside a matter of days to assist outbreak response, or over prolonged durations for longitudinal analyses.

The PopCAB course of incorporates a tiered knowledge assortment method that employs qualitative and quantitative strategies and builds on current data (Annex 1, Annex 2). The implementation staff adapts the PopCAB toolkit contents and template query information to the particular mission goals (Annex 3). Based mostly on these PopCAB goals, the staff can have interaction with representatives from many sectors, together with financial, well being, transportation, and so on.

Instance PopCAB Goals to Handle COVID-19

  • Describe COVID-19 healthcare-seeking habits
  • Map the connectivity of cities close to a COVID-19 outbreak
  • Establish greatest placement for well being screening checkpoints
  • Describe useful resource availability at factors of curiosity
  • Map transportation routes after border closures
  • Establish factors of curiosity for elevated COVID-19 threat communication
  • Establish high-risk communities for strengthening community-based surveillance
  • Characterize seasonality of motion
  • Establish precedence POE for COVID-19 surveillance

Instance Stakeholder Teams to Have interaction

  • Healthcare employees
  • Conventional healers
  • Transportation employees
  • Market distributors
  • Non secular leaders
  • Vacationers


Public well being practitioners can use the data and spatial knowledge gathered by means of PopCAB actions to visualise inhabitants motion patterns and determine areas the place officers can strengthen their tailor-made interventions to forestall, detect, and reply to the unfold of a communicable illness akin to COVID-19 (Annex 4).

PopCAB Diversifications for COVID-19

Public well being management can adapt PopCAB strategies to tell COVID-19 mitigation methods.

Mitigation measures to lower threat of illness transmission throughout area actions

The implementation staff can modify area actions by implementing social distancing and masks sporting throughout focus group discussions, participatory mapping workouts, and different group engagement actions. If doable, the staff can conduct PopCAB actions outside or in indoor areas with good air flow. Alternatively, if capability and assets can be found for distant classes, FGD and KII with participatory mapping could also be carried out nearly.

Key concerns for designing PopCAB implementation

The implementation staff can tailor the PopCAB toolkit to gather details about the motion patterns and behaviors of particular populations of curiosity the place COVID-19 threat of transmission is elevated. Public well being management ought to take into account implementing PopCAB in areas the place the danger of transmission or proximity to a COVID-19 outbreak is excessive. Different areas of curiosity for PopCAB implementation embody border areas with official or unofficial crossing factors, closely trafficked transportation routes or busy markets. By asking prioritized populations a wide selection of questions on their mobility, the implementation staff can assist to not solely inform public well being choices, but in addition to guage adjustments in motion and connectivity patterns after COVID-19 response insurance policies have been implement.

An instance for tailoring PopCAB implementation to deal with COVID-19 response

Lengthy-distance truck drivers have been recognized as a inhabitants of curiosity for some African international locations as a result of these drivers usually cross a number of worldwide borders alongside their routes. The truck drivers pose a threat for each worldwide and home transmission of COVID-19 and might provide worthwhile data throughout PopCAB actions about transmission hotspots. Focus group discussions with truck drivers might generate discussions in regards to the routes they take, the place they cease, how lengthy they keep on the stops, quantity of interplay with the area people at every cease, the place they go for emergency medical care throughout their routes, how their mobility has modified on account of COVID-19 restrictions, and locations alongside their routes the place they’re required to endure screening for COVID-19.

The outcomes gathered by means of PopCAB actions with truck drivers can be utilized to develop tailor-made threat communication campaigns at key truck stops as a way to educate drivers about doable signs, testing necessities at POE, and the danger of COVID-19 transmission.

Annex 1: Information Sources for Migration and Motion

To additional perceive inhabitants motion in a particular space, further mobility knowledge sources can be utilized in tandem with PopCAB knowledge. By combining a number of mobility knowledge sources in an evaluation, a rustic or area can obtain a extra well-rounded understanding of connectivity patterns inside and throughout its borders. The info sources listed within the desk under present a various set of details about inhabitants mobility patterns worldwide.

Annex 2: Further Studying Supplies

Harvey B, Dalal W, Amin F, McIntyre E, Ward S, Merrill RD, Mohamed A, Hsu C (2020). Planning and implementing a focused polio vaccination marketing campaign for Somali cellular populations in Northeastern Kenya based mostly on migration and settlement patternsexterior icon, Ethnicity & Well being, DOI: 10.1080/13557858.2020.1838455

Kakaï CG, Okunromade O, Dan-Nwafor C, Chabi A, Martial G, Dalhat M, Ward S, Tante O, Nguku P, Hamadi A, Ilori E, Lokossou V, Brito C, Ojo O, Kone I, Agbeko T, Ihekweazu C, Merrill RD (2020) Enhancing Cross-Border Preparedness and Response: Classes Realized from 3 Lassa Fever Outbreaks Throughout Benin, Nigeria, and Togo, 2017-2019exterior icon. Well being Secur;18, S1;S105-S112

Merrill RD, Rogers Ok, Ward S, Ojo O, Kakaī CG, Agbeko TT, Garba H, MacGurn A, Oppert M, Kone I, Bamsa O, Schneider D, Brown C. (2017) Responding to communicable illnesses in internationally cellular populations at factors of entry and alongside porous borders, Nigeria, Benin, Togoexterior icon. Emerg Infect Dis; Supp 23;13:2250-56.

Nakiire L, Mwanja H, Pillai S, Gasanani J, Ntungire D. Nsabiyumva S, Mafigiri R, Muneza N, Ward S, Daffe Z, Ahabwe P, Kyazze S, Ojwang J, Homsy J, Mclntyre E, Lamorde M, Walwema R, Makumbi I, Muruta A, Merrill RD (2020) Inhabitants Motion Patterns Among the many Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda Throughout an Outbreak of Ebola Virus Illness: Outcomes from Neighborhood Engagement in Two Districts — Uganda, March 2019exterior icon. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep;2020 Jan 10;69(1):10-13

Nanziri C, Ario A, Ntono V, Nsereko G, Monje F, Aliddeki D, Bainomugisha Ok, Bulage L, Kadobera D, Kyazze S, Kayiwa J, Tusiime P, Mabumba E, Makumbi I, Nakiire L, Walwema R, Lomarde M, Ocom F, Kasule J, Ward S, Merrill RD. Ebola Virus Illness Preparedness Evaluation and Danger Mapping in Uganda, August – September 2018exterior icon. Well being Secur Mar/Apr 2020;18(2):105-113. doi: 10.1089/hs.2019.0118.

Annex 3: Dialogue Template Information

The dialogue information template offers adaptable inquiries to facilitate the gathering of qualitative data and inform extra focused public well being interventions. This checklist of questions will help stakeholders in figuring out factors, routes and populations of curiosity to debate in subsequent questions. These questions will be tailor-made to any stakeholder group and nation’s goal in characterizing inhabitants motion.

Annex 4: PopCAB Package deal Implementation Matrix

This matrix helps a PopCAB implementation staff decide the extent of actions and assets wanted to realize the specified outputs that might greatest inform their goals. The primary tier can be helpful for international locations that have to rapidly accumulate and summarize mobility knowledge to reply to a COVID-19 outbreak. Groups which have beforehand carried out PopCAB or which have extra time and assets to dedicate to PopCAB actions can take into account adding-on parts akin to digitizing spatial knowledge garnered from map annotations and figuring out widespread themes within the knowledge by means of qualitative evaluation. The implementation staff can tailor these PopCAB add-ons to tell completely different COVID-19 response efforts by concentrating on populations or areas of curiosity which are at excessive threat of COVID-19 transmission.

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