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Coronavirus Illness 2019 (COVID-19)

Objective and Scope of this doc

This overview was created for healthcare employees in non-US healthcare settings and authorities officers engaged on the Coronavirus Illness 2019 (COVID-19) response.

The data on this doc attracts from the Facilities for Illness Management and Prevention (CDC) and World Well being Group (WHO) steerage paperwork and An infection Prevention and Management (IPC) priorities for the response to COVID-19 in healthcare settings and contains info that can be utilized in non-US contexts.

Construction of the doc

This overview is organized by first presenting a background on coronaviruses after which briefly describes the emergence, transmission, signs, prevention and therapy of COVID-19. The remainder of the doc evaluations COVID-19 IPC priorities, in non-US healthcare settings.

Coronavirus Background:

Coronaviruses are a big household of viruses that may trigger sickness in animals or people. In people there are a number of recognized coronaviruses that trigger respiratory infections. These coronaviruses vary from the frequent chilly to extra extreme ailments corresponding to extreme acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Center East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and COVID-19.

Coronavirus Illness 2019:


COVID-19 was recognized in Wuhan, China in December 2019. COVID-19 is brought on by the virus extreme acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a brand new virus in people inflicting respiratory sickness which could be unfold from person-to-person. Early within the outbreak, many sufferers had been reported to have a hyperlink to a big seafood and stay animal market, nonetheless, later instances with no hyperlink to the market confirmed person-to-person transmission of the illness. Moreover, travel-related exportation of instances has occurred.


COVID-19 is primarily transmitted from person-to-person via respiratory droplets. These droplets are launched when somebody with COVID-19 sneezes, coughs, or talks. Infectious droplets can land within the mouths or noses of people who find themselves close by or presumably be inhaled into the lungs. A bodily distance of at the least 1 meter (3 ft) between individuals is usually recommended by the World Well being Group (WHO) to keep away from an infection, though some WHO member states have really useful sustaining better distances every time doable1.  Respiratory droplets can land on arms, objects or surfaces across the particular person after they cough or discuss, and other people can then change into contaminated with COVID-19 from touching arms, objects or surfaces with droplets after which touching their eyes, nostril, or mouth. Latest information recommend that there could be transmission of COVID-19 via droplets of these with delicate signs or those that don’t really feel sick2. Present information don’t assist lengthy vary aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2, corresponding to seen with measles or tuberculosis. Quick-range inhalation of aerosols is a chance for COVID-19, as with many respiratory pathogens. Nonetheless, this can’t simply be distinguished from “droplet” transmission based mostly on epidemiologic patterns. Quick-range transmission is a chance notably in crowded medical wards and inadequately ventilated areas3. Sure procedures in well being services can generate nice aerosols and needs to be prevented every time doable.


A variety of signs for COVID-19 have been reported4. These embody:

  • Fever or chills
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath or problem respiration
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Nasal congestion or runny nostril
  • Muscle or physique aches
  • Sore throat
  • New lack of odor or style
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Diarrhea

The estimated incubation interval is between 2 and 14 days with a median of 5 days. It is very important observe that some individuals change into contaminated and don’t develop any signs or really feel unwell.

Sickness Severity 5,6,7

Regardless of the necessary issues about case fatality charges, most COVID-19 diseases are – and we anticipate will proceed to be – delicate, and most sufferers will recuperate spontaneously with some supportive care, particularly kids and younger adults. Information from a number of international locations recommend that 14%-19% are hospitalized and three%-5% will want intense care unit admission.

The primary largest description of sufferers with COVID-19 got here from China, the place the outbreak of COVID-19 began, and is described intimately under.  Among the many 44,672 confirmed COVID-19 instances reported from December 31, 2019 via February 11, 2020, the scientific presentation was as observe:

Gentle (non-pneumonia and delicate pneumonia instances) represented 80.9% of confirmed sufferers with COVID-19 in China.

NOTE: These instances included a big spectrum of diseases together with however not restricted to sufferers having fever, cough, chest ache, nausea, and physique ache. Extreme (dyspnea, respiratory frequency ≥ 30/min, blood O2 sat ≤93%, PaO2/FiO2 ratio <300, lung infiltrates >50% inside 24–48 hours) represented 13.8% of confirmed sufferers with COVID-19 in China.

Essential (respiratory failure, septic shock, and/or a number of organ dysfunction or failure, demise) represented 4.7% of confirmed sufferers with COVID-19 in China. 1,023 (49%) deaths had been reported among the many 2,087 critically sick sufferers.

Individuals at Larger Threat for Extreme Sickness

It is very important observe that COVID-19 is a brand new illness, due to this fact there may be restricted info concerning danger elements for extreme illness. In some instances, individuals who get COVID-19 can change into significantly sick and develop problem respiration. These extreme problems can result in demise. The chance of extreme illness will increase steadily as individuals age. Moreover, these of all ages with underlying medical situations (together with however not restricted to coronary heart illness, diabetes, or lung illness) look like at larger danger in creating extreme COVID-19 in comparison with these with out these situations. As extra information change into out there, extra danger elements for extreme COVID-19 could also be recognized.

COVID-19 Prevention and Therapy

COVID-19: On a regular basis Preventive Actions

There are a variety of how to stop the unfold of COVID-19 an infection. These embody:

COVID-19: Therapy

At present, look after sufferers with COVID-19 is primarily supportive. Care is given to sufferers to assist relieve signs and handle respiratory and different organ failure. There are presently no particular antiviral therapies licensed for COVID-19, nonetheless many therapies are beneath investigation. Remdesivir, which can be an investigational drug, obtained Meals and Drug Administration (FDA) emergency use authorization for therapy of hospitalized sufferers. Lastly, no vaccine is presently out there.

IPC for COVID-19

What’s IPC?

An infection prevention and management (IPC) is the follow of stopping or stopping the unfold of infections throughout healthcare supply in services like hospitals, outpatient clinics, dialysis facilities, long-term care services, or conventional practitioners. IPC is a vital a part of well being system strengthening and should be a precedence to guard sufferers and healthcare employees. Within the context of COVID-19, the IPC purpose is to assist the upkeep of important healthcare companies by containing and stopping COVID-19 transmission inside healthcare services to maintain sufferers and healthcare employees wholesome and protected.

COVID-19: IPC Priorities

  1. Fast identification of suspect instances
    1. Screening/Triage at preliminary healthcare facility encounter and speedy implementation of supply management
    2. Limiting the entry of healthcare employees and/or guests with suspected or confirmed COVID-19
  2. Rapid isolation and referral for testing
    1. Group sufferers with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 individually
    2. Check all suspected sufferers for COVID-19
  3. Protected scientific administration
    1. Rapid identification of inpatients and healthcare employees with suspected COVID-19
  4. Adherence to IPC practices
    1. Acceptable use of Private protecting gear (PPE)

Extra detailed info concerning the IPC priorities for non-US healthcare settings could be discovered within the Strategic Precedence IPC Actions for Containment and Prevention doc.

Normal and Transmission-Based mostly Precautions

Normal Precautions are a set of practices that apply to the care of sufferers in all healthcare settings always. Normal precautions stay the cornerstone of an infection prevention. Software of those precautions is dependent upon the character of the well being worker-patient interplay and the anticipated publicity to a recognized infectious agent. Normal precautions embody:

  • Hand hygiene
  • Private protecting gear
  • Respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette
  • Cleansing and disinfection of units and environmental surfaces
  • Protected injection practices
  • Treatment storage and dealing with

Transmission-based precautions are a set of practices particular for sufferers with recognized or suspected infectious brokers that require extra management measures to stop transmission. These precautions are used along with customary precautions.

COVID-19: Transmission-Based mostly Precautions:

Present WHO steerage for healthcare employees caring for suspected or confirmed COVID-19 sufferers recommends using contact and droplet precautions along with customary precautions (until an aerosol generated process is being carried out, during which case airborne precautions are wanted)1. Disposable or devoted affected person care gear (e.g., stethoscopes, blood strain cuffs) needs to be used; nonetheless, if gear must be shared amongst sufferers, then it needs to be cleaned and disinfected between use for every affected person (ethyl alcohol of at the least 70%).

Moreover, adequately ventilated single rooms or wards are advised. For normal ward rooms with pure air flow, sufficient air flow for COVID-19 sufferers is taken into account to be 60 L/s per affected person. When single rooms will not be out there, suspected COVID-19 sufferers needs to be grouped along with beds at the least 1 meter (3ft) aside based mostly on WHO’s suggestion, though some member states have really useful sustaining better distances every time doable. COVID-19 isolation rooms or wards ought to have devoted bogs, which needs to be cleaned and disinfected at the least twice day by day.

Moreover, healthcare services may also think about designating healthcare employees to look after sufferers with COVID-19 and limit the variety of guests allowed within the facility.

Transportation of sufferers with COVID-19 needs to be prevented until medically vital. If a affected person is deemed medically essential to be transported, a masks needs to be positioned on the suspected or confirmed COVID-19 affected person. Healthcare employees must also put on the suitable PPE when transporting sufferers.


Contact and droplet precaution PPE are really useful for healthcare employees earlier than getting into the room of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 sufferers. Healthcare employees needs to be educated on the right use of PPE, together with find out how to placed on and take away PPE. Prolonged use and re-use of sure PPE objects corresponding to masks and robes could be thought-about when there are provide shortages. Extra steerage could be situated beneath Emergency Issues for PPE. Healthcare employees ought to:

  • Use a medical masks (i.e., at the least a surgical/medical masks)
  • Put on eye safety (goggles) or facial safety (face defend)
  • Put on a clear, non-sterile, long-sleeve robe
  • Use gloves

There’s a larger danger of self-contamination when eradicating PPE. Please see directions for placing on and eradicating PPEpdf icon for steerage.

For healthcare employees performing any of the next aerosol producing procedures on sufferers with COVID-19, it is strongly recommended {that a} fitted respirator masks (N95 respirators, FFP2 or equal) is used versus surgical/medical masks. Along with sporting a fitted respirator masks, healthcare employees must also put on acceptable PPE together with gloves, a robe and eye safety.

Aerosol Producing Procedures embody1:

  • Endotracheal intubation
  • Bronchoscopy
  • Non-invasive air flow
  • Tracheotomy
  • Guide air flow earlier than intubation
  • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  • Sputum induction
  • Post-mortem procedures

An infection Prevention and Management Assets for COVID-19 in non-US Healthcare Settings:

Strategic Precedence IPC Actions for Containment and Prevention

Triage SOP

Identification of Healthcare Employees and Inpatients with Suspected COVID-19

Administration of Guests to Healthcare Services

Interim Operational Issues for Public Well being Administration of Healthcare Employees Uncovered to or Contaminated with COVID-19


  1. WHO. An infection prevention and management throughout well being care when novel coronavirus illness (COVID-19) is suspected or confirmedexterior icon.29 June 2020.
  2. Kai-Wang To, Ok., Tak-Yin Tsang, O., Chik-Yan Yip, C., Chan, KH., Wu, TC., Man-Chun Chan, J…Yuen, KY. Constant detection of 2019 novel coronavirus in salivaexterior icon. Scientific Infectious Illnesses. 12 February 2020. ciaa149.
  3. WHO. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: implications for an infection prevention precautionsexterior icon. 9 July 2020.
  4. WHO. Scientific administration of extreme acute respiratory an infection when COVID-19 is suspectedexterior icon. 13 March 2020.
  5. The Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Emergency Response Epidemiology Workforce. The epidemiological traits of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus ailments (COVID-19) – China 2020exterior icon. CDCweekly. 17 February 2020. 10.46234/ccdcw2020.032
  6. Stokes EK, Zambrano LD, Anderson KN, et al. Coronavirus Illness 2019 Case Surveillance — United States, January 22–Could 30, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69:759–765. DOI: icon
  7. Chen, J., Lu, H., Melino, G. et al. COVID-19 an infection: the China and Italy views. Cell Dying Dis 11, 438 (2020). icon
  8. WHO. Advise on using masks within the context of COVID-19exterior icon. 5 June 2020.
  9. WHO. Information to native manufacturing: WHO-recommended handrub formulationspdf icon. April 2020.

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