Notice: This doc is meant to supply steering on the suitable use of testing amongst sufferers present process outpatient hemodialysis. It doesn’t dictate the willpower of cost choices or insurance coverage protection of such testing, besides as could also be in any other case referenced (or prescribed) by one other entity or federal or state company.
Sufferers with finish stage renal illness (ESRD) on upkeep dialysis are at excessive danger for critical sickness and demise associated to an infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Most sufferers on upkeep dialysis endure hemodialysis thrice per week at outpatient dialysis facilities. At every therapy, dialysis services ought to assess sufferers for signs in keeping with COVID-19 or publicity to others with SARS-CoV-2 an infection.
Testing for SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory specimens can detect present infections (referred to right here as viral testing) amongst sufferers in outpatient dialysis services. Viral testing of sufferers in outpatient dialysis services, with licensed nucleic acid or antigen detection assays, could be an vital addition to different an infection prevention and management (IPC) suggestions aimed toward stopping SARS-CoV-2 from getting into dialysis services, detecting circumstances shortly, and stopping transmission. This steering is predicated on at the moment out there details about SARS-CoV-2 and shall be refined and up to date as extra data turns into out there.
Testing performed at dialysis services must be applied along with beneficial IPC measures. Not all dialysis services can carry out on-site testing; nevertheless, all services ought to have a plan for testing sufferers for SARS-CoV-2 (e.g., determine the place sufferers shall be referred for testing if the dialysis facility can’t carry out onsite testing).
Testing practices (together with performing assessments and reporting outcomes) ought to purpose for speedy turnaround instances (i.e., lower than 48 hours) in an effort to facilitate efficient interventions. Amassing a brand new specimen for a second take a look at in the identical affected person greater than as soon as in a 24-hour interval is usually not beneficial until the second take a look at is getting used to verify an preliminary outcome (e.g., nucleic acid detection to verify antigen take a look at outcome). Antibody (serologic) take a look at outcomes shouldn’t be used to diagnose an lively SARS-CoV-2 an infection or to tell IPC actions.
Whereas this steering focuses on testing sufferers present process hemodialysis at outpatient hemodialysis services, a number of of the suggestions – comparable to testing sufferers with indicators or signs of COVID-19 and testing asymptomatic shut contacts – also needs to be utilized to ESRD sufferers present process residence dialysis (i.e., residence hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis).
CMS has prompt that routine testing may very well be thought-about for nursing residence residents who frequently go away the power together with for dialysis. Facilities who dialyze these sufferers ought to have a plan to handle residents who’re discovered to be contaminated with SARS-CoV-2, together with working to determine strains of communication in order that outcomes of resident testing are quickly communicated and acted on.
For extra steering addressing different non-healthcare settings, seek advice from the CDC steering addressing Communities, Faculties, Workplaces and Occasions. Steering for testing healthcare personnel (HCP) is out there within the Interim Steering on Testing Healthcare Personnel for SARS-CoV-2.
Testing sufferers with indicators or signs of COVID-19
- Each time a affected person presents to the power for a dialysis therapy, consider for any COVID-19 signs. Carry out viral testing of any affected person who has indicators or signs of COVID-19.
- Clinicians ought to use skilled judgment to find out if a affected person has indicators or signs in keeping with COVID-19 and whether or not the affected person must be examined. People with ESRD and COVID-19 could not present widespread signs comparable to fever or respiratory signs. Some sufferers would possibly current with solely gentle signs or different much less widespread signs. Even gentle indicators and signs (e.g., sore throat) of a doable SARS-CoV-2 an infection ought to immediate consideration for testing
- Clinicians are inspired to contemplate testing for different causes of respiratory sickness, comparable to influenza, along with testing for SARS-CoV-2.
- Sufferers must be cared for by HCP utilizing all private protecting tools (PPE) and precautions described for sufferers with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 an infection whereas ready for outcomes of the take a look at to return.
Testing asymptomatic sufferers with recognized or suspected publicity to a person contaminated with SARS-CoV-2, together with shut and expanded contacts (e.g., there’s an outbreak within the facility) to manage transmission
- Each time a affected person presents to the power assess for any current publicity to others with SARS-CoV-2 an infection.
- Sufferers present process outpatient dialysis may need exposures to people with SARS-CoV-2 an infection inside and out of doors of the dialysis facility. It’s important that sufferers are screened for any potential exposures every time they endure therapy so IPC measures could be promptly applied and testing could be carried out in an expeditious method to forestall transmission to different sufferers or HCP.
- Due to the potential for asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 an infection to different weak people and HCP within the dialysis facility, it can be crucial that dialysis sufferers which were shut contacts of people with SARS-CoV-2 an infection be shortly recognized and examined for SARS-CoV-2 an infection.
- Amenities ought to preserve not less than 6 toes of separation between sufferers who had shut contact with an individual with SARS-CoV-2 an infection and different sufferers throughout dialysis therapy; they shouldn’t be cohorted with one another or with sufferers with confirmed or suspected SARS-CoV-2 an infection. HCP caring for sufferers who had been shut contacts of sufferers with SARS-CoV-2 an infection ought to use all beneficial private protecting tools (PPE) for the care of sufferers with SARS-CoV-2 an infection.
- As a result of sufferers can develop SARS-CoV-2 an infection at any level throughout their 14-day publicity interval, such safeguards ought to stay in place for 14 days after the publicity occasion, even when viral testing of the uncovered affected person is unfavourable throughout this time interval.
- If the uncovered affected person is inside 90 days of being identified with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 an infection, has accomplished their beneficial period of isolation precautions, and is at the moment asymptomatic, they don’t have to be examined or managed with Transmission-Based mostly Precautions. Nonetheless, if these people develop new signs in keeping with COVID-19 they need to be positioned on Transmission-Based mostly Precautions, assessed, and doubtlessly examined for SARS-CoV-2 if an alternate etiology shouldn’t be recognized.
- Observe native rules relating to reporting newly recognized infections to public well being authorities.
- If there’s an outbreak within the facility (i.e., proof of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 an infection within the dialysis facility or a number of sufferers or HCP with recent-onset SARS-CoV-2 an infection), contemplate performing expanded viral testing of all sufferers and HCP within the dialysis facility or all sufferers and HCP that had dialysis remedies or labored on the identical shift or day (i.e., expanded contacts past shut contacts)
- Since sufferers can develop a SARS-CoV-2 an infection on account of publicity outdoors of the dialysis facility, figuring out transmission inside a dialysis facility could be difficult. SARS-CoV-2 infections amongst healthcare personnel (HCP) or sufferers with epidemiologic hyperlinks inside the dialysis facility and no different recognized exposures counsel that transmission could have occurred inside the dialysis facility. Transmission inside a dialysis facility must be thought-about an outbreak, and the well being division must be notified.
- Performing viral testing of all sufferers, as quickly as transmission inside the facility is suspected, will enable for identification of contaminated sufferers shortly, aiding of their medical administration and permitting speedy implementation of IPC interventions (e.g., isolation, cohorting, use of PPE) to forestall SARS-CoV-2 transmission.
- Observe up testing (e.g., each 3 to 7 days) must be thought-about if extra SARS-CoV-2 infections are recognized within the preliminary spherical of testing.
- Facility-wide viral testing would possibly determine asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic sufferers with SARS-CoV-2 an infection; facility management must be ready to proceed to supply dialysis and isolate sufferers as wanted.
- Testing of HCP also needs to be included as a part of the response to the outbreak. For extra particulars see the Interim Steering on Testing Healthcare Personnel for SARS-CoV-2.
- If viral testing capability is proscribed, extra issues can be utilized to direct testing.
- For instance, if circumstances are recognized in sufferers on a specific dialysis schedule or shift (e.g., Monday/Wednesday/Friday), testing may very well be carried out in all sufferers on that schedule as a substitute of facility extensive.
- For issues on performing expanded testing, See Performing Broad-Based mostly Testing for SARS-CoV-2 in Congregate Settings, which could be tailored to dialysis settings.
- Notify native public well being authorities of suspected or confirmed outbreaks within the dialysis facility.
Testing to find out decision of an infection
Typically, a symptom-based technique must be used to information the choice on when to discontinue Transmission-Based mostly Precautions as a result of, generally, the test-based technique leads to extended isolation of sufferers who proceed to shed detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA however are not infectious. A test-based technique may very well be thought-about for some sufferers (e.g., those that are severely immunocompromised) in session with native infectious ailments consultants if issues exist for the affected person being infectious for greater than 10 to twenty days. In all different circumstances, the symptom-based technique must be used to find out when to discontinue Transmission-Based mostly Precautions.