This doc describes the objectives, guiding ideas, and techniques for group mitigation to scale back or forestall native COVID-19 transmission. Neighborhood mitigation actions are actions that individuals and communities can take to gradual the unfold of a brand new virus with pandemic potential. COVID-19 is an infectious illness attributable to a brand new coronavirus. Neighborhood mitigation actions are particularly necessary earlier than a vaccine or therapeutic drug turns into broadly out there.
As a result of COVID-19 is very transmissible and could be unfold by individuals who have no idea they’ve the illness, threat of transmission inside a group could be tough to find out. Till broad-scale testing is broadly applied or we’ve got a extra complete and exact measure of illness burden, states and communities ought to assume some group transmission or unfold is happening.
People have to observe wholesome hygiene practices, keep at residence when sick, observe bodily distancing to decrease the danger of illness unfold, and use a fabric face overlaying (with some exceptions) in group settings when bodily distancing can’t be maintained. These common precautions are applicable whatever the extent of mitigation wanted.
Defending the general public’s well being is paramount. As communities work to scale back the unfold of COVID-19, they’re additionally addressing the financial, social, and secondary well being penalties of the illness. State, native, tribal, and territorial officers are greatest positioned to find out the extent of mitigation required. Mitigation methods needs to be possible, sensible, and acceptable; they need to be tailor-made to the wants of every group and applied in a fashion that minimizes each morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 and doesn’t create or exacerbate any well being disparities.
The knowledge that follows offers a framework for states and localities as they take into account which actions to take to mitigate group transmission of COVID-19 in the USA. Choice and implementation of those actions needs to be guided by the extent of illness transmission (Desk 1). Demographic and different group traits, as properly public well being and healthcare system capability, may also drive decisionmaking on mitigation (Desk 2). Lastly, a set of potential cross-cutting mitigation methods for communities to contemplate is printed (Desk 3). Extra detailed and up to date setting or sector particular mitigation methods could be discovered right here.
The aim of group mitigation in areas with native COVID-19 transmission is to gradual its unfold and to guard all people, particularly these at elevated threat for extreme sickness, whereas minimizing the destructive impacts of those methods. These methods are used to attenuate morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 in societal sectors equivalent to faculties, workplaces, and healthcare organizations.
Implementation is predicated on:
- Emphasizing particular person duty for implementing advisable personal-level actions
- Empowering companies, faculties, and different settings to implement applicable actions
- Prioritizing settings that present important infrastructure companies
- Minimizing disruptions to day by day life to the extent potential and guaranteeing entry to well being care and different important companies.
- Neighborhood mitigation efforts purpose to scale back the speed at which somebody contaminated is available in contact with somebody not contaminated, or scale back the chance of an infection if there may be contact. The extra an individual interacts with completely different folks, and the longer and nearer the interplay, the upper the danger of COVID-19 unfold.
- Every group is exclusive. Applicable mitigation methods needs to be primarily based on the very best out there knowledge. Choice making will range primarily based on the extent of group transmission and native circumstances. Seek advice from Desk 1.
- The traits of the group and its inhabitants, well being system and public well being capability, and the native capability to implement methods are necessary when figuring out group mitigation methods. Seek advice from Desk 2.
- As communities regulate mitigation methods, they need to be certain that the healthcare system capability is not going to be exceeded. Precautions needs to be taken to guard well being care professionals and different important infrastructure employees. Communities have to guarantee healthcare methods have ample staffing, a surplus of inpatient and ICU beds, and significant medical gear and provides equivalent to PPE.
- As communities regulate mitigation methods, they need to guarantee public well being capability is not going to be exceeded. Public well being system capability depends on detecting, testing, contact tracing, and isolating those that are or is perhaps sick, or have been uncovered to identified or suspected COVID-19 circumstances; it is very important cease broader group transmission and forestall communities from having to implement or strengthen additional group mitigation efforts.
- Consideration needs to be given to people who find themselves at greater threat for extreme sickness when figuring out and adjusting group mitigation methods.
- Sure settings and susceptible populations in a group are at significantly excessive threat for transmission. This consists of however shouldn’t be restricted to congregate settings equivalent to nursing houses and different long-term care amenities, correctional amenities, and the homeless inhabitants.
- Mitigation methods could be scaled up or down, relying on the evolving native scenario, and what’s possible, sensible, and authorized in a jurisdiction. Any indicators of a cluster of latest circumstances or a reemergence of broader group transmission ought to end in a re-evaluation of group mitigation methods and a call on whether or not and the way mitigation may want to vary.
- Cross-cutting group mitigation methods could be organized into the next classes: selling behaviors that forestall unfold; sustaining wholesome environments; sustaining wholesome operations; and making ready for when somebody will get sick. Presuming a group shouldn’t be sheltering-in-place, cross-cutting methods underneath every rubric are outlined under and needs to be applied to the extent potential, and in accordance with the quantity of ongoing group transmission. Seek advice from Desk 3.
- Neighborhood mitigation methods needs to be layered upon each other and used on the similar time—with a number of layers of safeguards to scale back the unfold of illness and decrease the danger of one other spike in circumstances and deaths. Nobody technique is ample.
- There are vary of implementation decisions when setting or adjusting group mitigation plans. These decisions provide completely different ranges of safety from the danger of group transmission.
- Communities have to determine the extent of threat that’s acceptable and make knowledgeable decisions about implementing mitigation plans accordingly.
- People make decisions about following the behavioral practices which might be advisable. Compliance to group mitigation selections may also affect the unfold of COVID-19.
- CDC affords setting-specific methods for quite a lot of sectors that embody companies, faculties, institutes of upper training, parks and leisure amenities, and different locations.
- Journey patterns inside and between jurisdictions will affect efforts to scale back group transmission. Coordination throughout state and native jurisdictions is important – particularly between jurisdictions with completely different ranges of group transmission.